Transactions in a database management system (DBMS) include a number of characteristics that guarantee the consistency and integrity of the database. The following are the so-called ACID properties:
- Atomicity: This characteristic makes sure that a transaction is an atomic unit, which means that it is either entirely finished or not at all finished. All changes performed during a transaction are undone in the event of an error, and the database is restored to its initial state.
- Consistency: This characteristic makes sure a transaction leaves the database in a state that is consistent. The sum of all accounts must remain unchanged, for instance, if money is being transferred from one bank account to another.
- Isolation: This characteristic makes sure that the modifications performed by one transaction are separate from those made by other transactions. This is crucial because it stops transactions from interfering with one another and makes sure that each one is handled as if it were the only one.
- Durability: This characteristic guarantees that changes made by a transaction are permanent and cannot be undone in the event of a system failure after the transaction has been committed.
These characteristics are necessary for any DBMS to operate properly and aid in preserving the database’s consistency and integrity.