- An organized collection of data stored in a computer’s memory is known as a database.
- The concept of the database makes it easy to manage data, organize it, edit if necessary, and delete unnecessary data by means of different software like Database Management Systems.
- Most of the software and applications store data managing a proper database.
- Organizations like schools/colleges, hospitals, business houses, media companies, etc. manage a huge amount of their data by maintaining a database.
- Such data may include students’ details, daily transactions, doctors and patient data, staff data, inventory information, daily reports, etc.
- Data can be stored using different techniques on the computer. If stored by managing rows and columns in the tabular form then we call that type of database as Relational Database (Relation means table).
Other concepts are also being used like Object-Oriented Database, Grid Computing based database, Cloud database containers, etc.
Database Management System:
- Software that is used to manage data stored in a database.
- It is initial application software that is used to create data, collect data, store data, update and manage data.
- It provides a mechanism for users to search for data stored in a database with easy to use interface.
- Most of the DBMS software uses a commanding mechanism to do these operations(Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete) which is referred to as querying the database.
- Some database querying languages are there like SQL. (Structure Query Language) are used for database operations.
- DBMS software is mainly used to manage data in a database effectively. It also provides security to stored data.
Advantages of DBMS:
- Control data redundancy(repetition of the same data in more than one place).
- BY using DBMS software one can Share data among different users and programs.
- It provides a better interaction mechanism with the user. ==> It provide user interface
- It provides a Backup and Recovery mechanism in case of accidental damage
- Better Security ==> username, password mechanism with different level of user like
- Administrator, guest, normal user, etc.
- Searching is fast with DBMS
- It helps in decision making with accurate and timely information.
- Space optimization can be done by using DBMS. ==> to store a large volume of data in less space.
Facilitate advanced application and software development.
- Trained professionals like Database Administrators are required to manage DBMS.
- Expensive: Setup cost, manage, maintenance, upgrade and migration
- Complexity in managing databases as managers should have proper knowledge of DBMS and languages like SQL.
- Disk failure or damage may result in loss of data.
- Other security issues like viruses, hacking and cyber terrorism, etc.
- DBMS software needs frequent maintenance and upgrade which may result in more expenses.
- Lacking in proper database design may result in data loss.