Sunday, December 3, 2023
HomeAcademicCyber Security - Everything a layman need to know

Cyber Security – Everything a layman need to know

What is Cyber Security?
Cyber security refers to the protection of computer systems, networks, and data from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction. It also includes the protection of personal information and the safeguarding of data integrity.

Cyber security encompasses a wide range of technologies, processes, and practices designed to protect against cyber threats. These threats can come in many forms, including hacking, phishing, malware, and ransomware.

What does it include?

Cyber security includes the following areas:

  • Network security: the protection of the integrity, availability, and confidentiality of networked systems.
  • Endpoint security: the protection of devices that connect to a network, such as computers and mobile devices, from cyber threats.
  • Cloud security: the protection of data and applications hosted in the cloud from cyber threats.
  • Application security: the protection of software applications from cyber threats.
  • Identity and access management: the protection of identities and the control of access to systems and data.
  • Disaster recovery and business continuity: the ability to recover systems and data following a cyber attack.

Why Cyber Security is Important?
Cyber security is of vital importance in today’s digital age. The increasing reliance on technology and the internet has led to a significant increase in the number and sophistication of cyber threats. These threats can come in many forms, including hacking, phishing, malware, and ransomware. It is important for individuals, organizations, and governments to protect sensitive information and financial assets, maintain national security, and safeguard personal information. The increasing reliance on technology and the internet has led to a significant increase in the number and sophistication of cyber threats, making it more important than ever to implement robust cyber security measures.

One of the main reasons cyber security is so important is because of the potential financial impact it can have on individuals and organizations. A successful cyber attack can result in the loss of sensitive information, financial losses, and damage to a company’s reputation. It can also lead to legal and regulatory repercussions.

Another reason cyber security is important is because of the potential impact it can have on national security. Cyber attacks can target critical infrastructure, such as power grids and transportation systems, putting lives at risk.

Personal cyber security is also important as individuals’ personal and financial information can be compromised through cyber attacks. This can lead to identity theft and financial losses.

With the proliferation of the Internet of Things devices(IoT) and the increasing connectivity of various systems and devices, the attack surface has increased significantly. This makes cyber security a concern for not just individuals and organizations but also for governments and society as a whole.

Cyber security is important for protecting sensitive information and financial assets, maintaining national security, and safeguarding personal information. It is crucial for individuals, organizations, and governments to take cyber security seriously and to implement appropriate measures to protect against cyber attacks.

Common Security Threats

There are many different types of cyber threats that individuals and organizations need to be aware of. Some of the most common include:

  1. Phishing: This is a type of social engineering attack where attackers send emails or messages that appear to be from a legitimate source, such as a bank or a company, in an attempt to trick the recipient into giving away sensitive information, such as login credentials or financial information.
  2. Malware: This is a type of software that is specifically designed to damage, disrupt, or control computer systems. Malware can take many forms, including viruses, worms, and Trojan horses.
  3. Ransomware: This is a type of malware that encrypts a victim’s files and then demands a ransom payment in exchange for the decryption key.
  4. Advanced persistent threats (APTs): These are a type of cyber attack that are characterized by their persistence and the fact that they are often conducted by state-sponsored actors or well-funded criminal organizations. APTs are typically focused on stealing sensitive data, and are often used to conduct espionage or sabotage.
  5. Distributed Denial-of-service (DDoS): This type of cyber attack is designed to overwhelm a website or network with a flood of traffic, making it unavailable to legitimate users. DDoS attacks can be launched using botnets, which are networks of compromised devices that are controlled remotely by attackers.
  6. SQL injection: This is a type of attack that takes advantage of vulnerabilities in web-based applications to inject malicious code into a website’s database.
  7. Insider threat: This refers to the security threat that comes from within an organization, from employees or contractors who have access to sensitive information and systems.
  8. IoT and Operational Technology threats: With the proliferation of the Internet of Things devices and the increasing connectivity of various systems, these devices have become vulnerable to cyber-attacks, these attacks can compromise the security of the device, the network it is connected to, and any data that is stored on it.

These are just a few examples of the many types of cyber threats that exist. It’s important for individuals and organizations to be aware of these threats and to take steps to protect themselves from them.

Best practices for cyber securityHow can I be safe?

There are a number of best practices that individuals and organizations can follow to improve their cyber security:

  1. Keep software and systems up-to-date: Software vulnerabilities are often exploited by attackers, so it’s important to keep all systems and software up-to-date with the latest security patches.
  2. Use strong, unique passwords: Strong passwords are more difficult for attackers to guess or crack, and using unique passwords for different accounts can help to prevent an attacker from using a compromised password to gain access to multiple accounts.
  3. Use two-factor authentication (2FA): Two-factor authentication adds an additional layer of security by requiring a second form of verification, such as a fingerprint or a code sent to a mobile phone, in addition to a password.
  4. Use a firewall: A firewall can help to protect against unauthorized access to a network by blocking incoming traffic that does not meet certain security criteria.
  5. Conduct regular security assessments: Regularly assessing the security of systems and networks can help to identify vulnerabilities and weaknesses that need to be addressed.
  6. Employee training: Regularly training employees about the latest cyber threats, how to identify them, and how to prevent them can help to reduce the risk of a successful cyber attack.
  7. Back up your data: Regularly backing up important data can help to ensure that it can be recovered in the event of a cyber-attack or other disasters.
  8. Use encryption: Encrypting sensitive data can help to protect it from unauthorized access, even if it is intercepted by an attacker.
  9. Use a VPN: A Virtual Private Network (VPN) encrypts all data that is transmitted over the internet, making it more difficult for attackers to intercept and read.
  10. Monitor your network: Regularly monitoring network activity can help to detect unusual activity that may indicate a cyber attack.

It’s important to note that cyber security is an ongoing process, and organizations and individuals should regularly review and update their security measures to ensure they are effective against new and evolving threats.


Maintaining Personal Cyber Hygiene

Personal cyber hygiene refers to the habits and practices that individuals can adopt to protect themselves from cyber threats. By following the best practices for personal cyber hygiene, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from cyber threats and reduce the risk of falling victim to a cyber attack. Here are some best practices for personal cyber hygiene:

  1. Keep software and systems up-to-date: Software vulnerabilities are often exploited by attackers, so it’s important to keep all systems and software up-to-date with the latest security patches.
  2. Use strong, unique passwords: Strong passwords are more difficult for attackers to guess or crack, and using unique passwords for different accounts can help to prevent an attacker from using a compromised password to gain access to multiple accounts.
  3. Use two-factor authentication (2FA): Two-factor authentication adds an additional layer of security by requiring a second form of verification, such as a fingerprint or a code sent to a mobile phone, in addition to a password.
  4. Be cautious of suspicious emails and links: Avoid clicking on links or opening attachments from unknown or suspicious senders, as these can be used to deliver malware or phishing attempts.
  5. Use a VPN: A Virtual Private Network (VPN) encrypts all data that is transmitted over the internet, making it more difficult for attackers to intercept and read.
  6. Be aware of public Wi-Fi: Be cautious when using public Wi-Fi networks, as they may be unsecured and vulnerable to attack. Avoid accessing sensitive information or sites when connected to a public Wi-Fi network.
  7. Use anti-virus and anti-malware software: Use anti-virus and anti-malware software to protect your devices and systems from malware. Keep the software up-to-date and run regular scans.
  8. Be aware of social engineering: Be aware of social engineering tactics, such as phishing and pretexting, that attackers may use to trick you into giving away sensitive information.
  9. Keep personal information private: Be mindful of the personal information you share online, and only share what is necessary. Be wary of providing personal information to untrusted sources.
  10. Be aware of your online activity: Be aware of the websites you visit and the information you share online, as this can be used to track your online activity and build a profile of you.

Securing your Workspace

Cyber security in the workplace refers to the measures and strategies that organizations implement to protect their networks, systems, and data from cyber threats. It’s important to note that cyber security is an ongoing process, and organizations should regularly review and update their security measures to ensure they are effective against new and evolving threats. Here are some best practices for cyber security in the workplace:

  1. Develop a cyber security policy: Organizations should develop a comprehensive cyber security policy that outlines the measures and procedures in place to protect against cyber threats.
  2. Keep software and systems up-to-date: Software vulnerabilities are often exploited by attackers, so it’s important to keep all systems and software up-to-date with the latest security patches.
  3. Use strong, unique passwords: Strong passwords are more difficult for attackers to guess or crack, and using unique passwords for different accounts can help to prevent an attacker from using a compromised password to gain access to multiple accounts.
  4. Use two-factor authentication (2FA): Two-factor authentication adds an additional layer of security by requiring a second form of verification, such as a fingerprint or a code sent to a mobile phone, in addition to a password.
  5. Use a firewall: A firewall can help to protect against unauthorized access to a network by blocking incoming traffic that does not meet certain security criteria.
  6. Conduct regular security assessments: Regularly assessing the security of systems and networks can help to identify vulnerabilities and weaknesses that need to be addressed.
  7. Employee training: Regularly training employees about the latest cyber threats, how to identify them, and how to prevent them can help to reduce the risk of a successful cyber attack.
  8. Back up your data: Regularly backing up important data can help to ensure that it can be recovered in the event of a cyber-attack or other disaster.
  9. Use encryption: Encrypting sensitive data can help to protect it from unauthorized access, even if it is intercepted by an attacker.
  10. Monitor your network: Regularly monitoring network activity can help to detect unusual activity that may indicate a cyber attack.
  11. Have an incident response plan in place: Organizations should have a plan in place for responding to cyber security incidents so that they are able to quickly and effectively respond to any incidents that occur.


Cyber Security Law and Regulations in Nepal

Cyber security laws and regulations in Nepal are still in the process of development and implementation. However, the Nepal Government has been working to establish a comprehensive legal framework for cyber security. It’s important to note that Nepal has limited resources to enforce these laws and regulations, and hence the implementation of cyber security laws and regulations in Nepal still has a long way to go. The government, private sector, and individuals should take the necessary steps to improve cyber security in Nepal. Some of the key laws and regulations related to cyber security in Nepal include:

  1. Cyber Crime Act, 2074: This act criminalizes various cyber crimes, such as hacking, cyber stalking, and identity theft. It also provides for the establishment of a cybercrime investigation bureau to investigate and prosecute cyber crimes.
  2. Digital Security Act, 2075: This act was enacted to provide legal protection to the rights of individuals, organizations, and the state in the digital environment. It criminalizes various cyber crimes, such as hacking, cyber stalking, and identity theft.
  3. Electronic Transactions Act, 2075: This act provides a legal framework for electronic transactions and electronic signatures. It also establishes the Nepal Computer Council to regulate electronic transactions and promote the use of information technology in Nepal.
  4. Data Protection Act, 2075: This act provides a legal framework for the protection of personal data and sensitive personal data. It also establishes the Data Protection Authority to regulate data protection in Nepal.
  5. Cyber Security Directive, 2075: This directive was issued by the Nepal Government to provide guidelines for the protection of critical information infrastructure (CII) in Nepal. It requires CII operators to implement various security measures, such as incident response plans, regular security assessments, and employee training.
  6. National Cyber Security Strategy, 2075: This strategy was developed by the Nepal Government to provide a framework for the protection of cyberspace in Nepal. It includes guidelines for the protection of critical information infrastructure, the promotion of cyber security awareness, and the development of a cyber security workforce.

In conclusion, cyber security is a critical concern for businesses and individuals alike, as the increasing use of technology in all aspects of life has led to an increase in cyber threats. Cyber security use cases refer to specific applications or scenarios where cyber security measures are implemented to protect against cyber threats. Examples include Network security, Cloud security, Endpoint security, Internet of Things (IoT) security, Email security, Identity and access management (IAM), Industrial Control Systems (ICS) security, and Blockchain Security. It is important to stay informed about the latest cyber security threats and best practices in order to effectively protect against them.

datasagarhttp://www.DataSagar.com
The author of this blog post is a technology fellow, an IT entrepreneur, and Educator in Kathmandu Nepal. With his keen interest in Data Science and Business Intelligence, he writes on random topics occasionally in the DataSagar blog.
RELATED ARTICLES
- Advertisment -

Most Popular