Sunday, December 3, 2023
Home Blog

Google’s Top Free Courses with Certificate

Hi there, a warm Namaste and Greetings to all learners out there! I’m DataSagar, and I’m excited to share some fantastic courses with you. Google, the tech giant we all know and love, is offering a treasure trove of free courses that you simply can’t afford to miss. Whether you’re a seasoned IT professional or someone looking to delve into the digital world, there’s something for everyone. Let’s dive into the top 5 courses that are worth your time and attention.

1. Google Professional Workspace Administrator Professional Certificate

What You’ll Learn: This course is designed to turn you into a Google Workspace pro. You’ll be mastering email communication to seamlessly collaborating on documents. You’ll also gain the skills needed to manage and optimize the Google Workspace environment for your team or organization. The course covers essential topics like user and identity management, security, and troubleshooting, making it a must-have for IT administrators.
Start NOW! Google Professional Workspace Administrator Professional Certificate

2. Google IT Automation with Python Professional Certificate

What You’ll Learn: Automation is the future, and this course equips you with the Python skills needed to excel in IT automation. From writing scripts to automating system tasks, you’ll develop a deep understanding of Python’s applications in the IT world. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced developer, this certificate will enhance your ability to streamline processes and solve real-world IT problems.
Start NOW! Google IT Automation with Python Professional Certificate

3. Fundamentals of Digital Marketing

What You’ll Learn: In today’s digital age, understanding the fundamentals of digital marketing is crucial for personal and professional growth. This course covers the basics of online marketing, including search engine optimization (SEO), social media marketing, and email marketing. By the end, you’ll have the knowledge to create effective digital marketing strategies that drive results.
Start NOW! Fundamentals of Digital Marketing

4. Learn with Google AI

What You’ll Learn: Artificial Intelligence is reshaping the way we interact with technology, and this course from Google provides a solid foundation. Whether you’re a beginner or have some experience with AI, you’ll explore machine learning concepts, delve into neural networks, and understand the practical applications of AI. Get ready to demystify the world of artificial intelligence.
Start NOW! Learn with Google AI

5. Google Ads Certifications

What You’ll Learn: For those looking to boost their digital marketing skills, Google Ads Certifications are a game-changer. Dive into the intricacies of online advertising, learn to create effective ad campaigns, and optimize them for maximum impact. Whether profession you’re in, mastering Google Ads is a valuable skill set in today’s competitive digital landscape.
Start NOW! Google Ads Certifications

In a nutshell, these free courses from Google are an incredible opportunity to upskill and stay ahead in the ever-evolving tech world. So, what are you waiting for? Take the plunge into these courses and unlock a world of knowledge and possibilities. Happy learning!

Threat of Deepfake AI Videos with Real-World Case of Rashmika Manadanna

Hello everyone, welcome to again! In today’s ever-evolving technological landscape, the rapid progress of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) has bestowed upon us an array of extraordinary capabilities. These innovations have reshaped industries and revolutionized our lives in ways we couldn’t have imagined a few decades ago. However, amid this transformative journey, we encounter a looming shadow — the unsettling realm of Deepfake videos. In this article, we delve deep into the world of Deepfake videos, uncover their malevolent misuse, and explore their profound impact on society with recent real-world case of Indian Actress Rashmika Mandana and Zara Patel. Let’s get started!

Understanding Deepfake Videos

Deepfake videos, at first glance, may seem like a modern trick of movie magic. They involve the artful manipulation of video footage through the application of AI and ML algorithms, effectively replacing one person’s appearance and sometimes even their voice with that of another. The resultant videos can convincingly portray individuals saying or doing things they never did in reality. On the surface, this may appear as an intriguing technological feat, but the implications run far deeper, carrying the potential for deception, misinformation, and the creation of impeccable forgeries.

The Intricate Process Behind Deepfake Videos

To comprehend the enormity of the issue, we must first understand the mechanics of Deepfake video creation. The process is a sophisticated one, comprising several key stages:

  1. Data Collection: The foundation of any Deepfake video is a substantial amount of video and audio footage of both the target person (the individual to be replaced) and the source person (whose likeness is borrowed for the substitution).
  2. Training: Complex deep learning models, such as Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) and Variational Autoencoders (VAEs), analyze and learn patterns within the collected data. These models generate a representation of the target person’s facial features and expressions.
  3. Face Swapping: The Deepfake algorithm then meticulously replaces the target person’s face with that of the source person. This intricate process involves aligning facial features and making frame-by-frame adjustments to craft a seamless and convincing replacement.
  4. Fine-Tuning: To elevate the authenticity of the Deepfake, post-processing techniques come into play. These may include blending the swapped faces seamlessly, adjusting lighting, and mastering the art of manipulating shadows.
  5. Audio Manipulation (Optional): Some Deepfake videos also incorporate voice synthesis or manipulation to ensure the target person’s voice aligns with that of the source person, creating a more persuasive illusion.

The Dark Side: Misuse of Deepfake Technology

While Deepfake technology holds potential for benign applications, its misuse raises significant concerns. Let’s delve into some instances of misappropriation and the reverberations they carry:

  1. Identity Theft: Deepfake videos can be used to impersonate individuals, potentially leading to identity theft, damage to one’s reputation, and fraudulent activities.
  2. Misinformation: Convincing Deepfake videos can effortlessly propagate false narratives, influencing public opinion and eroding trust in media.
  3. Political Manipulation: The political sphere isn’t immune to the machinations of Deepfake technology. These videos can be exploited to influence elections and sow discord.
  4. Financial Fraud: Unscrupulous actors can employ Deepfakes to manipulate financial transactions and deceive unsuspecting victims.
  5. Privacy Invasion: The privacy of individuals is at stake, as anyone’s likeness can be employed without their consent.

Alarming Statistics

The proliferation of Deepfake videos has been nothing short of astounding. According to a report by Deepware Scanner, the number of Deepfake videos online surged by a staggering 330% between 2019 and 2021. This growth is indicative of an urgent need to address this emerging threat.

A Clarion Call for Regulation and Vigilance

The battle against Deepfake misuse is a collective one, requiring the involvement of diverse stakeholders, including tech companies, governments, and individuals. To combat this challenge effectively, the following actions are indispensable:

  1. Legislation: Governments must enact laws that specifically target the creation and distribution of Deepfakes, imposing penalties on those who exploit the technology for malicious purposes.
  2. Detection Tools: Tech companies should allocate resources to develop and implement advanced Deepfake detection tools, effectively identifying and removing fraudulent content.
  3. Media Literacy: Promoting media literacy is essential to empower individuals to distinguish authentic content from Deepfake manipulations.
  4. Ethical AI Use: Developers and organizations working with AI and ML technologies must adhere to ethical guidelines and standards, ensuring responsible and transparent applications.

Real-World Case: Rashmika Mandanna and Zara Patel

The recent case involving Indian actress Rashmika Mandanna and British influencer Zara Patel highlights the stark dangers of Deepfake technology. Rashmika Mandanna fell prey to cybercrime after her deepfake AI video went viral, showcasing her in situations she never participated in. Zara Patel, the original person in the video, has also expressed her distress and concerns about the misuse of her image.

In a statement, Rashmika Mandanna described the incident as “scary,” emphasizing that it is “not only for me but also for each one of us who today is vulnerable to so much harm because of how technology is being misused.” She highlighted the emotional impact, expressing that she couldn’t imagine dealing with such an incident during her school or college days.

The woman from the original video, Zara Patel, responded to the fake video, expressing her deep disturbance and distress. She also voiced her apprehension about the future of women and girls, who must now worry about the increased fear of putting themselves on social media platforms.

The Fake Video (With Rashmika Mandana’s Face) vs The Real One (i.e. of Zara Patel)

The Call for Urgent Action:

This real-world case underscores the urgency of addressing the deepfake menace. The misuse of Deepfake technology can wreak havoc on individuals’ lives, tarnish reputations, and spread misinformation. Indian IT Minister Rajeev Chandrashekhar rightly pointed out that deepfakes represent an even more dangerous and damaging form of misinformation, necessitating swift action from social media platforms under India’s IT rules.

The rise of Deepfake videos is a compelling reminder of the dual nature of AI and ML technology. While they bring us remarkable benefits, they also introduce profound risks when misused. The proliferation of Deepfake videos serves as a stark reminder of the dual nature of AI and ML technology. While these advancements have delivered remarkable benefits, they have also introduced risks when placed in the wrong hands. To effectively combat this challenge, society must unite to protect itself from the malevolent exploitation of Deepfake technology. The time to act is now, before the consequences become irreversible. By implementing regulatory frameworks, investing in detection tools, and promoting media literacy, we can safeguard our digital world from the dark side of technological innovation. The time to act is now, as the impact of inaction may become irreversible.

Thanks for reading!


Top 5 AI Cover Generators – AI Singers: Is it possible for AI to sing songs using my voice?

Are you looking to add a creative twist to your music or voice recordings? AI cover generators are revolutionizing the world of music and audio production. These online platforms employ cutting-edge artificial intelligence technology to help you transform your audio content in exciting and innovative ways. In this blog post, we’ll introduce you to the top 5 AI cover generators and provide insights into their offerings, whether they’re free or paid, and how to create covers using each one.

  1. was founded by the visionary Emily Parker, a graphic design enthusiast who saw the potential of AI in the world of music. The platform specializes in creating unique and artistic cover designs for your music albums, thanks to AI algorithms that generate stunning artwork matching the mood and style of your music. I’ll take you towards its offerings, pricing, and Steps to Create Covers now. Ready? Lets Go!
    • Offerings: specializes in creating unique and artistic cover designs for your music albums. It uses AI algorithms to generate stunning artwork that matches the mood and style of your music.
    • Pricing: offers both free and premium services. The free version allows basic cover generation, while the premium version provides advanced features and customization options.
    • Steps to Create Covers:
      • Visit the website,
      • Upload your music album information and specify any design preferences.
      • Let the AI work its magic, generating cover designs based on your input.
      • Review and customize the generated covers as needed.

  2. is led by the tech-savvy entrepreneur Daniel Mitchell, is dedicated to transforming your voice recordings into engaging content. The platform adds voice effects and modifications to make your voiceovers stand out and captivate your audience. In this section, I will guide you through the features, prices, and steps to create covers using this tool. Are you excited? Let’s get started!
    • Offerings: focuses on transforming your voice recordings or narrations into expressive and engaging content. It can add various voice effects and modifications to make your voiceovers stand out.
    • Pricing: offers a free trial, with a subscription model for more advanced features and unlimited usage.
    • Steps to Create Covers:
      • Visit
      • Upload your voice recording or narration.
      • Select the desired voice effects, pitch adjustments, and other modifications.
      • Let the AI process the audio, and download the modified content.

  3. was founded by the innovative Sophia Chang, specializes in altering song covers by flipping the gender of the singer’s voice. This unique concept adds a fresh perspective to familiar songs, making male voices sound female and vice versa. Steps below will show you how to use this tool to create covers with different features and prices. Are you ready? Let’s begin!
    • Offerings: is designed for altering song covers by flipping the gender of the singer’s voice. It can make male voices sound female and vice versa, adding a fresh perspective to familiar songs.
    • Pricing: provides both free and premium options. The free version offers limited voice flipping options, while the premium version offers greater versatility.
    • Steps to Create Covers:
      • Go to
      • Upload your song cover or audio recording.
      • Choose the gender flip settings.
      • Let the AI process your content and download the transformed version.

  4. as created by the visionary Alex Rodriguez, is an AI tool for dubbing audio tracks into different languages or accents. This versatile platform is perfect for multimedia projects requiring multilingual or diverse voiceovers. This tool can help you design covers with various options and costs. Are you excited? Let’s get started!
    • Offerings: is an AI tool for dubbing audio tracks into different languages or accents. It’s perfect for multimedia projects that require multilingual or diverse voiceovers.
    • Pricing: offers a free trial period, with various subscription options for more extensive use.
    • Steps to Create Covers:
      • Visit
      • Upload the audio content you want to dub.
      • Select the target language or accent.
      • Let the AI process the dubbing and download the final result.
  5. was co-founded by the dynamic duo of Sarah and Michael Johnson. This versatile platform allows users to share their AI-generated music covers and voice modifications with a passionate community of artists and enthusiasts. I will guide you through the features, prices, and steps to create covers using FineShare now. Are you excited? Let’s get started!
    • Offerings: is a versatile platform for sharing your AI-generated music covers and voice modifications with a community of artists and enthusiasts.
    • Pricing: provides free access to its platform, allowing you to upload and share your AI creations.
    • Steps to Create Covers:
      • Visit
      • Sign up for a free account.
      • Upload your AI-generated music covers or voice modifications.
      • Share your content with the community and explore the work of other artists.

You can use these AI cover generators to create and improve your audio content, such as music, voiceovers, or dubbing. These platforms are free or premium services that can boost your creativity and help you achieve better results with your audio projects.

In the ever-evolving world of AI and technology, we’re continually pushing the boundaries of what’s possible. But, can AI sing songs in your voice? Well, as of now, it might not be able to match your unique vocal stylings perfectly – you’re still the reigning shower-singing champion! However, with the rapid advancements in AI, who knows what the future holds? Maybe one day, AI will serenade us all with its best imitation of your unforgettable high notes. Until then, keep singing in the shower, because even the most advanced AI can’t beat the charm of your bathroom acoustics! LOL! 🚿🎤

Remember to regularly update your knowledge to stay current with the latest offerings and trends in AI and ML with DataSagar. Happy creating!

Tech Giants on a Tightrope: Qualcomm’s Layoffs and the State of the Tech Industry

Welcome to DataSagar, where Education meets Technology. I’m Hem Sagar Pokhrel, an Educator, Developer, and E-business Strategy Consultant from Kathmandu, Nepal. This blog has evolved from a personal platform to a collaborative space for authors worldwide. Let’s delve into the world of tech and innovation!

In a surprising turn of events, Qualcomm, a prominent microchip manufacturer, is set to lay off over 1200 employees in California. The move comes in the wake of a volatile technology industry grappling with economic challenges, despite several groundbreaking innovations. As technology enthusiasts and professionals, it’s crucial to understand why such layoffs are occurring and how to prepare for the ever-evolving tech landscape.

The Current State of the Technology Industry

The technology industry has long been regarded as a beacon of innovation, offering countless job opportunities and a multitude of possibilities. However, recent events, like Qualcomm’s layoffs, reveal the underlying challenges faced by tech giants. Here’s a closer look at why this problem is occurring:

  1. Market Saturation: The technology market is reaching a saturation point in many sectors. As more products and services become interconnected, consumers are becoming more discerning. This makes it challenging for companies to maintain growth and profitability.
  2. Economic Uncertainties: The tech industry is not immune to economic fluctuations. A global recession or economic downturn can lead to reduced consumer spending, affecting tech companies’ revenues.
  3. Rapid Technological Advances: The tech industry is marked by rapid innovation and disruption. Companies must adapt quickly or risk becoming obsolete. This constant change can put pressure on companies to restructure and optimize their workforce to remain competitive.

Solutions for the Tech Industry’s Challenges

While these challenges are real, they are not insurmountable. Tech companies, technology professionals, and enthusiasts can consider the following solutions:

  1. Diversify Skillsets: The technology landscape is vast and continually evolving. Professionals should diversify their skillsets to stay relevant. For instance, a software engineer might learn data science or cybersecurity, making themselves adaptable to a broader range of roles.
  2. Continuous Learning: Lifelong learning is essential. Stay updated on the latest industry trends and emerging technologies. Online courses, certifications, and workshops are excellent ways to acquire new skills and knowledge.
  3. Networking: Building a strong professional network can open doors to opportunities. Attend industry conferences, meetups, and webinars to connect with like-minded individuals and potential employers.
  4. Embrace Remote Work: The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the adoption of remote work. Tech professionals can leverage this trend to explore job opportunities beyond their geographic location, widening their job prospects.
  5. Entrepreneurship: Consider pursuing entrepreneurial ventures. Many startups have disrupted the tech industry by addressing unmet needs or inefficiencies. As a tech enthusiast, you might have an innovative idea that could lead to success.
  6. Mentorship: Seek guidance from experienced professionals in the industry. They can provide insights, career advice, and help you navigate the ever-changing tech landscape.

Qualcomm’s recent layoffs are a stark reminder of the technology industry’s ongoing challenges. However, for technology enthusiasts and professionals, these challenges also present opportunities for growth and adaptation. By diversifying skills, staying informed, networking, and embracing change, individuals can prepare themselves for the dynamic future of technology. The tech industry will always need innovation and talent, and those who are ready to embrace change can continue to thrive in this exciting field. Thanks for joining us on this journey, and let’s keep learning and growing together.

Japan’s Own AI Revolution: Building ChatGPT with a Sushi Twist!

Hey there, tech-savvy friends! It’s your pal, DataSagar, and boy, do I have some hot and steaming tech news for you! Japan, the land of sushi, sumo, and, let’s not forget, super cool tech gadgets, is venturing into the wild world of AI chatbots. They’re crafting their own version of ChatGPT, that chatty AI sensation from the folks over at OpenAI. It’s like they’re cooking up their special recipe for tech takoyaki!

Picture this: the Japanese government, along with tech bigwigs like NEC, Fujitsu, and SoftBank, are tossing in hundreds of millions of dollars to whip up AI systems that speak fluent Japanese. Yep, you heard it right, they want their AI to talk like a local, not some lost-in-translation robot.

So, why all the fuss, you ask? Well, it turns out, current AI models, like ChatGPT, are like wizards in English but stumble over their kimono when it comes to Japanese. You see, Japanese isn’t just a different language; it’s a whole different beast. While English has a cozy 26-letter alphabet, Japanese is flexing its muscles with two sets of 48 basic characters and over 2,000 Chinese characters (they call ’em kanji). It’s like the AI equivalent of juggling sushi knives!

Imagine this: when ChatGPT tries to converse in Japanese, it sometimes throws out super rare characters that most folks have never laid eyes on. It’s like trying to read a secret ninja code. Trust me, it’s not easy!

But it's not just about language; it's also about cultural finesse. Think of it this way: if ChatGPT were Japanese, it might pen a job application email that's about as polite as a sumo wrestler in a tea ceremony. It would scream "English translation alert!" They want their AI to blend in seamlessly, like a ninja in the night.

To see just how well these AI chatbots blend in, some crafty researchers invented a ranking system called Rakuda. They basically asked ChatGPT to tackle tricky questions about Japanese culture and evaluated how smoothly it handled them. Surprise, surprise! ChatGPT, aka GPT-4, aced the test, claiming the top spot. Go, GPT-4, go!

But don’t count out the Japanese just yet. They’ve got their secret weapon: the Fugaku supercomputer. This beast is one of the fastest in the world, and they’re using it to train a Japanese LLM (that’s Large Language Model, not some new sushi roll). This homegrown Japanese LLM, slated for release next year, will be open source, which means everyone can get a taste of its coding magic. They’re aiming for a whopping 30 billion parameters – that’s tech speak for its size and complexity.

But wait, there’s more! Japan’s Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology is splurging big bucks to create an AI for science stuff. It’s like having a lab assistant that can generate scientific hypotheses by reading research papers. They’re starting with 100 billion parameters – that’s over half the size of GPT-3! It’s a colossal effort that could speed up scientific discoveries, but it’ll cost them a cool ¥30 billion (about US$204 million) and won’t hit the scene until 2031. Science takes time, folks!

And you know what’s really cooking in Japan’s tech kitchen? Companies like NEC and SoftBank are already putting their Japanese LLMs to work. NEC’s generative AI is slicing and dicing report writing and software code, while SoftBank is pouring ¥20 billion into creating its very own LLM. They’re gearing up to serve universities, research institutions, and more. It’s like a tech sushi train, but instead of sushi, you get AI smarts!

In the end, Japan’s quest to create a top-notch, culturally savvy AI chatbot isn’t just about tech. It’s about bridging language gaps, making scientific strides, and maybe even sharing a bit of Japanese culture with the world. So, stay tuned, tech aficionados, because a Japanese ChatGPT could be the next big thing, and who knows, it might even teach you how to order sushi like a pro!

Catch you on the tech flip side, and remember, keep it quirky and keep it techy! 🍣🤖

Getting Started with NFTs: What, How, and Why on

Note: This is a guest blog post and DataSagar does not assume responsibility for any legal consequences, and therefore advises individuals residing in countries where NFTs are prohibited to refrain from accessing this article.

Welcome to the fascinating world of Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs), brought to you by, your go-to platform for discovering, collecting, minting, selling, and buying NFTs. Whether you’re a seasoned cryptocurrency enthusiast or just dipping your toes into the world of blockchain technology, is here to guide you through the essential aspects of NFTs, including what they are, what gives them value, and how you can get started creating and trading NFTs on our platform.

What Are NFTs, and Why

A Non-Fungible Token, or NFT, is a unique digital token that exists on a blockchain, such as Ethereum. Unlike cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, which are interchangeable with one another, each NFT has distinct and irreplaceable data. This uniqueness makes NFTs stand out in the world of digital assets. understands the power of NFTs and provides you with a seamless platform to explore their potential. We offer a curated selection of NFTs, allowing you to discover rare and valuable digital collectibles, artworks, and more.

What Gives NFTs Their Value?

Several factors contribute to the value of NFTs, and is your gateway to understanding and harnessing this value:

  1. Uniqueness: Each NFT is one-of-a-kind, with no identical counterparts. verifies this uniqueness, making them rare digital assets.
  2. Copyright: Some NFTs on come with copyright ownership, granting the holder commercial rights to use the associated content. This can be a significant value addition.
  3. Rarity: Since NFTs are unique and irreplaceable, they are inherently rare. Limited supply often drives demand and increases value, a concept beautifully illustrated on
  4. Collectibility: showcases NFTs that are collectible items, akin to physical collectibles like trading cards or artwork. Owning and trading them can yield substantial returns.
  5. Downloadable Content: NFTs on may contain unlockable content, such as game assets, music, PDFs, or more. Purchasing an NFT grants you access to this exclusive content.
  6. Immutability: The metadata associated with an NFT on is unchangeable, ensuring the token’s authenticity and provenance. This immutability enhances their value and collectibility.
  7. Permanence: NFTs are forever on As long as the blockchain exists, your NFT remains in your possession, ready to be resold or traded at any time.
  8. Resellability: enables you to resell your NFTs, and many traders make substantial profits by buying and selling NFTs strategically on our platform.

How to Get Started with Buying/Trading NFTs on

Now that you understand what NFTs are and why they have value, let’s explore how to get started creating and trading NFTs on

Step 1: Acquire Ethereum (ETH)

To participate in the NFT ecosystem on, you’ll need Ethereum (ETH) and an Ethereum wallet, such as Metamask. Purchase ETH from a cryptocurrency exchange like Coinbase or Binance to fund your wallet, covering transaction fees (gas fees) and NFT purchases on

Step 2: Explore, Your Premier NFT Marketplace is your premier NFT marketplace, offering a user-friendly interface and a diverse range of NFTs. Discover rare and valuable digital collectibles, artworks, and more, all curated for your convenience. Our platform is designed to make your NFT journey seamless and rewarding.

How to Create NFTs (Minting) on

If you’re an artist or content creator looking to mint your NFTs, is your creative hub. Follow these steps:

  1. Choose Decide to mint your NFTs on our platform,, where creativity knows no bounds.
  2. Creating an Item: Access our minting feature, which is as straightforward as listing an item for sale on traditional e-commerce platforms. makes it easy for you to showcase your talent.
  3. Provide Details: Fill in the item’s title, subtitle, and a compelling description. Share the story behind your NFT to engage potential buyers.
  4. Upload Content: Depending on’s platform, you can upload various types of content, including high-resolution images, videos, or other digital assets.
  5. Unlockable Private File: allows you to include an unlockable private file that only the NFT owner can access, adding value to your NFT.
  6. Preview Images: Upload an image that represents your NFT and additional preview images for the listing. This is similar to showcasing products on e-commerce websites.
  7. Set a Price: Determine the price for your NFT, configure any additional options (e.g., transferring copyright), and list it for sale on

After your NFT is minted and listed on, it becomes a part of the blockchain, and you retain control and ownership of it.

Promoting Your NFTs on

Promoting your NFTs on is essential for gaining exposure and attracting potential buyers. Utilize platforms like Twitter, Reddit, Discord, and specialized NFT communities to showcase your creations. Building a following and engaging with the NFT community on can boost your chances of success. Also, Consider Joining our Discord Group here:

Exploring NFT Games with

If you’re interested in NFT gaming, is your gateway to exciting experiences. Consider game like Nuva Force, where you can explore unique gaming experiences and earn valuable NFT assets within the games themselves.

NFTs represent a revolutionary shift in how we perceive and interact with digital assets. Their uniqueness, ownership benefits, and potential for value appreciation make them an exciting avenue for creators, collectors, and investors alike. Whether you’re minting your own NFTs or exploring the diverse world of NFT trading on, our platform provides you with the fundamental knowledge and resources to embark on your NFT journey. As the NFT space continues to evolve, stay informed and adapt to new opportunities that arise in this dynamic digital landscape. Happy minting and trading with Nuva. Cheers!

Figma for VS Code Extension: Guide to Installation and Usage on Windows PC

In the dynamic world of design and development, efficiency and collaboration are the keys to success. Enter the Figma for VS Code Extension, a game-changer that brings the worlds of design and code closer than ever before. In this comprehensive guide, we will walk you through the steps to seamlessly install and utilize the Figma for VS Code Extension on your Windows PC.

Step 1: Installation

The journey begins with installation. Here’s how to get started:

  1. Open Visual Studio Code: If you haven’t already, download and install Visual Studio Code, the popular code editor by Microsoft.

2. Visit the Extensions Marketplace: Once inside VS Code, head over to the Extensions marketplace by clicking on the Extensions icon in the sidebar. In the Extensions marketplace, search for “Figma for VS Code.” Locate the official extension and click the “Install” button. Install the Extension and Wait for the installation process to complete. Once finished, you’ll see a confirmation notification.

Figma for VS Code Extension

Step 2: Connecting Figma and VS Code

With the extension installed, it’s time to connect Figma and VS Code:

  1. Open the Command Palette: In VS Code, open the Command Palette by pressing Ctrl+Shift+P (Windows) or Cmd+Shift+P (Mac).
  2. Search for Figma Commands: In the Command Palette, start typing “Figma” to see available commands.
  3. Link Your Figma Account: Select “Figma: Link Figma Account.” Follow the prompts to log in to your Figma account and authorize the extension.

Step 3: Navigating Design Files

Now that you’re linked up, let’s explore design files:

  1. Access Figma Files: Open the Command Palette again and search for “Figma: Open Live Design Files.” This action will display a sidebar with your live Figma design files.
  2. Collaborate in Real Time: Click on a design file to open it in the VS Code sidebar. You can now see and respond to comments and activity in real time without leaving your code editor.

Step 4: Generating Code from Designs

Let’s tap into the magic of code suggestions from your designs:

  1. Auto-Generated Code: Select a specific layer in your design file. As you type in your code editor, the extension generates code suggestions based on the properties of the selected design layer.
  2. Downloading Assets: To further speed up implementation, simply click on assets in the design file to download and integrate them into your repository.

Step 5: Keeping Design and Code Aligned

Finally, let’s explore syncing design components and navigating your codebase:

  1. Linking Components: To maintain design system and codebase alignment, use the “Figma: Link Code Files to Design Components” command. This feature facilitates easy navigation and documentation.
  2. Review Dev Resource Links: Add and review links to dev resources for efficient reference and documentation.

Congratulations! You’ve successfully installed and harnessed the power of the Figma for VS Code Extension on your Windows PC. Seamlessly navigate design files, collaborate in real time, generate code from designs, and keep your design system and codebase in sync—all within your trusted code editor. This extension is a true ally for designers and developers striving for seamless collaboration and streamlined workflows. Embrace the future of design-to-code integration with Figma for VS Code Extension!

Can I view message without sender knowing it? – Mastering Facebook Messenger with its history

Hi everyone! Welcome to yet another blog post on the simple everyday tool of common interest that many of you might have thought of. i.e., Facebook Messenger, and the secrets behind using it as a pro.

Image: History of Facebook Messanger by DataSagar

In the ever-evolving landscape of communication, Facebook Messenger App has emerged as a prominent platform for instant messaging. Launched in August 2011, it has transformed the way we interact and stay connected with our friends and family. However, one question that frequently arises is whether it’s possible to read messages on Facebook Messenger without the sender knowing. In this blog post, I will explore the intricacies of Facebook Messenger, its messaging icons, and uncover whether reading messages incognito is indeed possible. So, why do late. Let’s begin!

A Brief Overview of Facebook Messenger

Facebook Messenger, an extension of the Facebook ecosystem, offers users the ability to engage in real-time conversations with friends and contacts. Initially introduced as Facebook Chat in 2008, it underwent a significant revamp in 2011 and rebranded as Facebook Messenger. Notably, while the service was initially tied to Facebook accounts, it now facilitates communication within multiple platforms, including Facebook, Instagram, Portal, and Oculus VR.

The Messaging Icons: Decoding Message Status

To understand the possibility of reading messages discreetly, it’s essential to comprehend the messaging icons and their meanings within Facebook Messenger. These icons play a crucial role in conveying the status of messages. Here’s a quick rundown:

Image: Meaning of Messenger icons by DataSagar
  • Blue Circle : Your message is being sent.
  • Blue Circle with a Check: Your message has been sent.
  • Filled-in Blue Circle with a Check: Your message has been delivered.
  • Small Profile Picture: Indicates that the recipient has seen your message.

Why Do Messages Say “Sent” Instead of “Delivered”?

The term “SENT” signifies that your message has been submitted to the cellular network for immediate delivery. On the other hand, “DELIVERED” means the message has reached the recipient’s device but hasn’t been read yet.

Interpreting Message Delivery and Seen Status

When a message appears with a blue circle and a check, it means your message has been sent. A filled-in blue circle indicates successful message delivery. Furthermore, the appearance of a small version of the recipient’s profile picture signals that the message has been seen.

Messages that remain in the “Sent” state without advancing to “Delivered” might indicate that the recipient hasn’t logged into Facebook or has blocked you on Messenger.

Reading Messages Stealthily: Is It Possible?

Now, let’s delve into the methods people seek to employ to read messages incognito.

  1. Enabling Airplane Mode: One strategy to read messages without notifying the sender is by enabling Airplane Mode. When activated, Airplane Mode cuts off the Messenger app’s access to the internet. You can then open the Messenger app and read messages without triggering read receipts. Upon reconnection, your read status won’t be displayed to the sender.
  2. App Notification: If you’ve enabled push notifications for Messenger, you can view incoming messages on your notification bar without opening the app. This method allows you to gauge message content and the sender’s identity without triggering read receipts.
  3. Third-Party Plug-Ins: For desktop users, third-party extensions like “Unseen” for Chrome and “Message Seen Disable” for Firefox can be valuable tools. These extensions prevent read receipts from being sent, enabling you to read messages undetected.

While Facebook Messenger offers an array of icons to convey message statuses, reading messages incognito without the sender knowing can be a delicate matter. The aforementioned methods, such as Airplane Mode and third-party extensions, provide users with the ability to discreetly peruse messages. However, it’s important to approach this with respect for others’ expectations of communication transparency. Ultimately, while technology presents us with innovative ways to manage our online interactions, maintaining open and honest communication remains paramount.

Thanks for reading!

The Uncertain Future of OpenAI: A Deep Dive into Challenges and Potential Bankruptcy

Greetings, dear readers, and welcome back to DataSagar, your compass in the ever-evolving realm of technology. Today, I’ll be taking you on an insightful journey to exploring the unfolding narrative surrounding one of the AI world’s trailblazers – OpenAI. As the architects of groundbreaking technologies that have ignited conversations around AI for both tech-savvy enthusiasts and everyday individuals, OpenAI has stood as a harbinger of innovation. However, as the winds of change blow strong, recent developments have cast a shadow of uncertainty over OpenAI’s future. In this article, we delve deep into the multifaceted challenges that OpenAI faces, the intricate web of circumstances that have brought them to this crossroads, and the looming question: Could OpenAI’s path eventually lead to the unexpected territory of bankruptcy? Join us as we navigate through trademark disputes, shifting user preferences, intense competition, and more, unraveling the tale of OpenAI’s precarious position in the AI landscape.

OpenAI has long been a leader in the field of artificial intelligence, spreading awareness of the technology through the use of ChatGPT, a well-known chatbot. But according to recent reports, a worrying pattern could put OpenAI in danger of going bankrupt. This article explores the different aspects of OpenAI’s possible financial difficulties, including trademark issues, changing user preferences, and fierce competition.

Trademark Troubles and User Exodus

OpenAI’s journey took an unexpected turn when it sought to trademark the term ‘GPT’, which is integral to their generative AI technology. This move was viewed by many as the start of OpenAI’s downfall, fostering concerns that people would eventually lose interest in their technology. Although the trademark application was unsuccessful, a notable shift in user behavior has become evident.

At first, the decline in usage of the ChatGPT website was attributed to the summer break for students or the introduction of the ChatGPT API, allowing users to create their customized bots. However, this initial decline was a harbinger of a more significant problem.

API Cannibalization and Declining User Base

The decline in user engagement became more pronounced as time went on. Analytics provided by SimilarWeb showed a 12% decrease in users from June to July, dropping from 1.7 billion to 1.5 billion users. However, this statistic does not include API usage, which has become the primary revenue source for OpenAI.

A pivotal factor in this decline appears to be the cannibalization of the original ChatGPT usage by the API. Many companies encouraged their employees to integrate the ChatGPT API into their workflows rather than using the standalone service. This shift not only affected user numbers but also highlighted OpenAI’s challenge in convincing users to opt for their proprietary solution over other open-source and free alternatives.

Competition and Shifting Landscape

OpenAI’s user decline is not solely a result of API usage; open-source large language models (LLMs) have played a substantial role. The example of Meta’s LLaMA 2, developed in partnership with Microsoft, is significant. This LLM not only allows commercial use but also offers adaptability and flexibility, raising questions about why someone would choose OpenAI’s proprietary version over such alternatives.

Furthermore, OpenAI’s transformation from a non-profit to a profit-oriented venture, coupled with Sam Altman’s lack of equity ownership, raises concerns about their focus on profitability. Despite this shift, OpenAI has yet to achieve profitability, accruing losses of $540 million since the inception of ChatGPT.

Financial Challenges and Microsoft’s Lifeline

The financial outlook for OpenAI seems to be murky as well. Microsoft’s $10 billion investment has sustained the company for now, but OpenAI’s projections of reaching $200 million in annual revenue in 2023 and aspiring for $1 billion in 2024 seem ambitious, given their mounting losses.

Transitioning to a paid model generated revenue, but the path to profitability remains uncertain. Potential income sources include API sales and offerings like GPT-4-based chatbots or DALL-E2, but specifics remain unclear. The cost of operating ChatGPT, around $700,000 daily, presents a significant financial challenge. These expenses are currently supported by Microsoft and recent investors, but sustainability remains questionable.

Competitors and GPU Shortages

Historically, industry giants like Google and Meta were OpenAI’s primary rivals. However, the landscape has shifted with the emergence of Musk’s xAI, introducing heightened competition. Musk’s vision for a “TruthGPT,” devoid of political bias, has garnered attention and resources, including 10,000 NVIDIA GPUs, signifying his commitment to challenging OpenAI’s dominance.

Complicating matters, the ongoing GPU shortage hampers OpenAI’s ability to improve and train new models. Despite filing for a trademark on ‘GPT-5,’ this pursuit has led to diminished output quality for ChatGPT.

The Dire Path Ahead

Considering these complex circumstances, OpenAI’s future is fraught with challenges. Additional funding is imperative to acquire GPUs and resume model training. The absence of prompt funding might necessitate filing for bankruptcy by the end of 2024.

As challenges mount, financial losses grow, user numbers dwindle, legal disputes accumulate, and output quality falters, OpenAI faces an arduous path forward. The journey that began with promise and innovation is now mired in uncertainty, showcasing the unpredictability of the AI landscape.

OpenAI’s trajectory from trailblazer to potential bankruptcy serves as a cautionary tale, highlighting the intricate interplay of factors in the AI industry. Whether OpenAI can weather the storm and regain its footing remains a question that only time will answer.

What is Non-Fungible Token or NFT? A simple definition with an example

If you’ve been following the latest trends in the digital world, you might have come across the term “NFT.” But what exactly does it mean? In simple terms, an NFT, which stands for Non-Fungible Token, is a unique digital item that can be bought, sold, and owned. It represents something one-of-a-kind and cannot be exchanged on a one-to-one basis like traditional currencies.

To better understand NFTs, let's compare them to something more familiar: money. Money is fungible, meaning that each unit is equal to any other unit of the same value. For instance, if you exchange an NPR 10 bill with another NPR 10 bill, you still have the same value. However, NFTs are non-fungible because each one is distinct and cannot be directly swapped with another NFT without considering its individual characteristics.

An excellent way to visualize NFTs is by thinking of them as digital collectibles. Just like you might collect physical items like baseball cards or stamps, NFTs allow you to collect and own unique digital assets. These assets can include digital art, music, videos, virtual real estate, virtual pets, and even moments from sports or entertainment events.

Let’s take a look at a simple example to illustrate how NFTs work. Imagine you’re a digital artist named Laxmi, and you create a stunning piece of digital art. Instead of selling it as a physical painting, you decide to turn it into an NFT. By doing so, you can verify and prove that you are the original creator and owner of that specific artwork using technologies like blockchain.

Once the NFT is created, you can list it for sale on an NFT marketplace. This is where potential buyers can discover your artwork and make a purchase. When someone buys your NFT, they are essentially purchasing a digital certificate of ownership. They may not have the physical artwork itself, but they own the original and unique digital assets.

As an artist, you can also include additional benefits for the buyer. For example, you might specify that the buyer gets exclusive access to behind-the-scenes content related to the artwork, or you can grant them special privileges in future releases. Or, maybe the access pass or any other benefits related to the game or product/services that artwork is being used, same as in the Mushroom Kingdom NFT collection by NuvaNFT where they’re developing a game using the NFT characters from collection like Nomins, Grutzis, Hidois, and Kaioji etc. that creators are selling now. With the game that the Nuva Group set to develop with story behind characters they’re selling now, collectors can get access pass or other benefits of Nuva ecosystem later on. This type of associations adds value and enhances the overall ownership experience of users as well.

FYI, In the enchanting land of the Mushroom Kingdom by NuvaNFT, a diverse array of beings thrived, each playing a unique role in shaping the fate of their realm. Among these were the peaceful and hardworking Nomins, the malevolent Grutzis seeking power, the noble and brave Hidois, and the resolute and compassionate ruler, King Kaioji.

Now, let’s consider the buyer of your NFT. They can showcase their ownership of the artwork publicly or keep it in their digital collection. They may also choose to sell the NFT in the future, potentially at a higher price, if the artwork becomes more valuable or sought after. The blockchain technology behind NFTs ensures that ownership and transaction history are transparent and cannot be tampered with, providing trust and security for all parties involved.

It’s important to note that NFTs have gained significant attention and popularity recently, with artists, celebrities, and creators embracing this new digital medium. However, like any new technology, there are challenges and considerations. For instance, the environmental impact of blockchain technology and the potential for copyright infringement are valid concerns that need to be addressed as the space evolves.

NFTs represent a unique and exciting way to own and trade digital assets. They provide creators with new opportunities to monetize their work and engage with their audience. Whether you’re an artist, a collector, or simply curious about the digital world, NFTs are reshaping the way we think about ownership in the digital age.

So, keep an eye out for NFTs, explore the vibrant NFT marketplaces like NuvaNFT and Opensea, and embrace the possibilities of owning and experiencing digital assets like never before.

Thanks for reading. You may go for more NFT related articles by clicking this link.

Best Free Courses on AI, ML, IoT and Data Science for beginners 2023 – Microsoft Learn AI Skill Challenge

In today’s rapidly evolving world, the demand for new skills is greater than ever. Whether you’re a high-school student eager to explore emerging technologies or someone looking to transition into a new field, Microsoft has paved the way for accessible and comprehensive learning experiences. With an array of beginner-friendly curriculums, Microsoft is equipping learners of all backgrounds with the tools they need to flourish in trending areas such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), Machine Learning (ML), and Data Science.

1. Dive into AI with Confidence

Course: AI for beginners

Artificial Intelligence is reshaping industries and changing the way we interact with technology. The AI for beginners curriculum, a 12-week, 24-lesson journey, demystifies AI’s complexities, making it accessible to all. Participants will delve into various AI approaches, from symbolic methods to modern neural networks and deep learning. This comprehensive curriculum also introduces popular frameworks like TensorFlow and PyTorch for hands-on coding experience.

2. Navigating IoT Through Real-World Projects

Course: IoT for beginners

The Internet of Things has revolutionized the way we connect and interact with our surroundings. The IoT for beginners curriculum takes learners on a 12-week adventure, centered around a project that explores the entire journey of food, from farm to table. Covering farming, logistics, manufacturing, retail, and consumer aspects, this curriculum provides a holistic understanding of IoT’s role in various industries. With pre- and post-lesson quizzes, written instructions, assignments, and solutions, learners gain hands-on experience while building lasting skills.

3. Embark on a Machine Learning Odyssey

Course: Machine Learning for beginners

Machine Learning is at the heart of AI advancements, and Microsoft’s Machine Learning for beginners curriculum offers a 12-week, 26-lesson journey through classic machine learning techniques. Using the Scikit-learn library, learners explore various machine learning algorithms, applying them to diverse global datasets. This curriculum perfectly complements the AI for beginners course, focusing on classical methods and setting the stage for more in-depth AI exploration.

4. Unveiling the Secrets of Data Science

Course: Data Science for beginners

Data Science is the backbone of informed decision-making in today’s data-driven world. The Data Science for beginners curriculum, spanning 10 weeks with 20 lessons, delves deeper into the realm of deep learning and data analysis. With quizzes, assignments, and solutions, learners grasp the intricacies of data handling, manipulation, and interpretation, laying the foundation for advanced data-driven insights.

Challenge Yourself with the MS Learn AI Skills Challenge

While these curriculums offer comprehensive learning, Microsoft takes it a step further with the MS Learn AI Skills Challenge. This engaging challenge empowers learners to develop essential AI skills across Microsoft products and services. By completing challenges, participants earn badges and certificates of completion, signifying their mastery. This challenge provides an avenue to explore tailored experiences, connect with experts, and build a network within the vibrant technical community.

In a world where knowledge is the key to success, Microsoft’s commitment to democratizing education is evident through these beginner-friendly curriculums and engaging challenges. By providing free access to high-quality learning resources, Microsoft is bridging the gap between aspiration and achievement. Whether you’re curious about AI’s intricacies, IoT’s real-world applications, classical ML techniques, or the secrets of data science, Microsoft has you covered. So, embark on a journey of discovery and innovation, and equip yourself with the skills that today’s job market demands. Happy learning!

Don’t miss out on this incredible opportunity. Enroll in these courses today and be a part of the transformative journey. Access the curriculums via the provided links and take your first steps towards a future filled with limitless possibilities.

Nepal’s New E-commerce Bill: An In-Depth Analysis of Its Impact on the Industry

Namaste, dear readers! I am DataSagar, a passionate blogger and an enthusiastic advocate of all things ICT. Today, I want to share my thoughts on Nepal’s recent e-commerce bill that has been making waves in the online community. As someone deeply involved in the world of e-commerce, I cannot help but feel both excited, concerned and worried about the potential impact of this new legislation in e-commerce arena of Nepal.

In recent times, the rapid growth of e-commerce has transformed the way people conduct business and trade across the globe. Realizing the significance of this sector, the Nepal government has taken steps to regulate e-commerce within the country. However, the new e-commerce bill of Nepal, though well-intentioned, has raised concerns among various stakeholders. This article delves into the provisions of the bill and explores its potential impact on the e-commerce ecosystem in Nepal.

Let’s dive into the details and explore what this e-commerce bill means for individuals like me who have embraced the digital realm to connect, trade, and thrive.

Excitement About Regulation

At first glance, the government’s efforts to regulate e-commerce in Nepal appear to be a step in the right direction. As a technology blogger and lecturer of e-commerce since a decade, I understand the importance of creating a safe and secure online environment for consumers and businesses alike. With the rapid growth of e-commerce, it becomes crucial to ensure fair practices, protect consumer rights, and instill confidence in the digital marketplace.

Key Points in The Bill and Their Impacts

The bill requires e-commerce platforms to provide comprehensive details about products or services, including prices, taxes, transportation costs, delivery time, and customer reviews etc. While this ensures transparency and consumer protection, it is sure to increase the burden on e-commerce companies to manage and maintain this information accurately.

To be specific, the bill mandates a predefined set of fields (more than 10 to be exact) for defining each product. While clarity and product categorization are essential, making such requirements mandatory for all products can be impractical, especially for businesses with huge, vast and diverse inventories. 

To safeguard consumer rights, the bill grants buyers the right to return products that do not meet their requirements and receive unconditional refunds.

This provision is a positive step towards ensuring customer satisfaction and trust in the e-commerce sector. 

The bill also is allowing individuals, firms, and organizations in Nepal to purchase products or services from foreign e-commerce platforms and export to international buyers. To protect consumer data, the bill mandates e-commerce businesses to maintain the confidentiality of personal details and restricts the disclosure or unauthorized utilization of such information.

However, it imposes the condition of fulfilling advance payment requirements as per existing federal laws.

I must say, while the e-commerce bill is an essential step towards regulating our growing digital marketplace, some provisions have raised eyebrows, and the requirement for prior payment for exporting products/services is one of them. It seems like the government might need a deeper understanding of the nuances of cross-border trade and consider more flexible approaches to foster international business collaborations. Not every business can afford to demand advance payment for exports.

This rigid provision might limit opportunities for smaller businesses to expand globally and could hinder the growth potential of our local entrepreneurs. Let's hope for further discussions and amendments to ensure the best possible environment for our e-commerce community.

The bill placed greater responsibility on e-commerce platforms when acting as intermediaries. This means that in cases of faulty products or services, e-commerce platforms are obligated to facilitate warranties, exchanges, and refunds.

This shift of liability from the seller to the platform may lead to increased compliance costs and potential hesitancy among e-commerce companies to offer a diverse range of products.

Another aspect to note out is that the bill requires e-commerce businesses to submit an online application for listing on the government-established “e-commerce portal.” Existing e-commerce companies must apply for listing within three months from the commencement date of the Act.

Failure to get listed within the specified period may lead to penalties or restrictions on conducting transactions and may incur fines as well. Seems quite irrelevant and strange provisions as compared to rest of the countries around the world with well-developed IT and Network infrastructures which are doing way better in e-commerce.

Additionally, the stipulation for a software-based ticket generation system is also emphasized by the bill, which seems irrelevant and troublesome for SMEs thinking of entering the e-commerce arena with limited resources.

This may hinder aspirant entrepreneurs and youths trying to get into the ecommerce market.

The Bill’s Impact on SMEs

However, while the intentions behind the e-commerce bill seem noble, I must confess that I am worried about its potential impact on Small and Medium Enterprises and startups trying to uplift Nepal’s startup ecosystem. The requirement for written contracts with intermediaries and the added responsibility placed on e-commerce platforms could create hurdles for aspiring entrepreneurs. With lots of paperwork, lack of automation and cumbersome processes, this might get more complicated in place of solving pain points of ecommerce entrepreneurs.

Imagine you’re a young entrepreneur with a brilliant e-commerce idea, and you dream of bringing it to life. The new bill might make you think twice about taking that leap of faith. The complex registration process and the burden of fulfilling all the mandated fields for product definitions might discourage newcomers from entering the e-commerce landscape.

Balancing Consumer Protection and Business Growth

Don’t get me wrong; consumer protection is paramount. The provisions for comprehensive product and service information, buyer’s right to return, and data privacy are essential for building trust with customers. However, we must find a balance that encourages entrepreneurship and innovation without compromising on consumer rights.

Witnessing hurdles of ecommerce closely since more than a decade, I firmly believe that the success of any e-commerce ecosystem lies in its ability to foster growth, inspire creativity, and empower small businesses to thrive.

Challenges Ahead

The new bill also introduces the concept of an “e-commerce number,” and obtaining it requires registration at multiple places. I wonder how this process could become a lengthy and tiresome affair, possibly acting as a deterrent for those who wish to join the e-commerce revolution.

Moreover, the mandate for e-commerce platforms to have a software-based ticket handling system may be challenging for startups with limited resources. This requirement could potentially slow down their growth and hinder their ability to provide top-notch customer service.

Opportunities for Growth

While I appreciate the efforts to regulate the e-commerce industry, I urge the government and policymakers to consider the needs of small businesses and startups and do necessary home work with market leaders like Hamrobazar, Daraz, SastoDeal, and so on. Simplifying registration procedures, offering support for compliance, and providing incentives for growth can go a long way in creating a thriving e-commerce ecosystem in Nepal.

Lastly, Nepal’s e-commerce bill signifies a significant step towards a more organized and secure digital marketplace. However, it is vital to strike a balance between consumer protection and encouraging the growth of small businesses. While the intentions are commendable, there are valid concerns regarding the potential hindrance it may pose to new startups and the operational complexities it may add to existing e-commerce companies.

As the bill goes through the legislative process, it is essential for policymakers to strike a balance between protecting consumer interests, encouraging e-commerce growth, and promoting entrepreneurship. Flexibility and provisions that support startups and small businesses could be crucial in fostering a thriving e-commerce ecosystem in Nepal. Regular consultations with industry stakeholders and amendments based on feedback will be vital to ensuring a successful implementation of the e-commerce bill that benefits all parties involved. I look forward to seeing amendments and consultations with industry stakeholders that address these concerns.

Let us work together to build an e-commerce landscape that fosters innovation, inclusivity, and prosperity for all. As technology blogger, I am committed to staying informed about the developments in this space and sharing my insights with you all. Until next time, happy e-commerce adventures!

Thanks for reading.

Powerhouses of AI Innovation: OpenAI, NVIDIA, Google, Meta, UC Berkeley, and LMU Munich

Welcome to DataSagar, your gateway to the captivating world of Information and Communication Technology and its awe-inspiring impact on numerous industries. In this article, we embark on an exciting journey to explore the fascinating roles played by the titans of AI innovation. Brace yourself for a riveting tale of breakthroughs and discoveries that have revolutionized the art of writing-generating AI models and engines. Get ready to witness the magic unfold as we unravel the incredible advancements that have reshaped the way we interact with language and unleashed a whole new realm of creativity. So, fasten your seatbelts and join us on this extraordinary adventure into the realm of AI-powered text generation.

The realm of AI-powered language models and text generation has witnessed remarkable advancements in recent years. Behind these breakthroughs stand several influential organizations that have played pivotal roles in developing and pushing the boundaries of AI technology. In this article, we will delve into the specific contributions and roles of OpenAI, NVIDIA, Google, Meta, UC Berkeley, and LMU Munich in the realm of writing-generating AI models and engines.


OpenAI has been at the forefront of AI research and development. They are known for their transformative language models, including GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) series. OpenAI’s GPT-3, with its massive scale and versatility, revolutionized the field of natural language processing. The model showcased the ability to generate coherent and contextually relevant text, opening up possibilities in various domains, from content creation to chatbots. OpenAI’s mission to ensure that artificial general intelligence (AGI) benefits all of humanity has been a driving force behind their innovations.


The advancement of the hardware foundation required for training and executing massively scalable AI models has been made possible in large part by NVIDIA, a world leader in visual computing and AI technology. Their potent GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) have played a key role in speeding up deep learning and allowing researchers to train models more effectively. Researchers and developers of AI may now experiment and iterate more quickly thanks to the NVIDIA GPUs’ ability to analyze data in parallel.


Google has significantly advanced artificial intelligence, especially in the areas of natural language generation and understanding. Modern models like BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers), which improved language comprehension by utilizing contextual information, have been developed as a result of their study. In order to improve the coherence and quality of generated text, Google has also made large expenditures in enhancing its language generation skills. These efforts include investigating techniques like reinforcement learning and transfer learning.

Meta (Facebook)

Following the list is another tech giant with which we all are familiar. The development of AI has been a major focus for Meta, formerly known as Facebook. They have helped to advance the fields of natural language processing and comprehension in an effort to improve user experiences across all of their platforms like Instagram, Facebook, Oculus, WhatsApp etc. The goal of the research teams at Meta has been to improve the caliber of machine-generated material while ensuring that it complies with user preferences and expectations. These teams have focused on language models, dialogue systems, and text production.

University of California, Berkeley

A center for innovative AI research has been located at the University of California, Berkeley. Their contributions have been made in a variety of fields, including natural language creation and processing with their rigorous research and development. Advancements in dialogue systems, machine translation, and language modeling have been made by UC Berkeley researchers. Their research produced fresh ideas and perceptions that changed the discipline and had an impact on the creation of AI models and engines.

LMU Munich

With a focus on natural language interpretation and generation, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU Munich) is famous for its AI research. Deep learning methods for language processing, dialogue systems, and machine translation have all benefited from the work of LMU Munich researchers. Their efforts have significantly increased the precision and fluidity of text that is generated, pushing the limits of what AI systems are capable of doing when it comes to linguistic tasks.

Together, these organizations are shaping the future of AI, paving the way for exciting possibilities in language generation. As we stand at the cusp of a new era, we can only imagine the remarkable innovations that lie ahead, fueled by the relentless pursuit of excellence and the shared goal of pushing the boundaries of human creativity and ingenuity.

Revolutionizing Urban Mobility: The Rise of Autonomous Drones as Air Taxis – Benefits, Challenges, and Future

The market for urban air mobility (UAM) is expected to grow significantly in the coming years. According to a report by MarketsandMarkets, the UAM market is expected to reach USD 9.1 billion by 2030, with a CAGR of 11.33% from 2025 to 2030.

Welcome to DataSagar, a blog where technology meets education and industry! I am Hem Sagar Pokhrel, your guide in exploring the fascinating world of technology and its impact on various aspects of our life.

In this blog post, we will be discussing the exciting topic of autonomous drones as air taxis for smart urban air mobility. We will explore the technology behind autonomous drones, how they work as air taxis, and the benefits they can provide for urban mobility. We will also address some of the challenges and concerns associated with this technology and provide insights into the future of autonomous drones as air taxis.

So, fasten your seatbelts and get ready for an exciting journey through the world of autonomous drones and their potential to revolutionize urban transportation. Let’s dive in!

To start with, let’s talk about what drones actually are.

You may have seen the use of these tiny flying artificial creatures in shooting wedding videos or even in film-making nowadays. Or, more likely, you may have already owned one before. But, have you ever thought about what these machines actually are and what possibility they uphold for the future to come? Don’t get serious, I’ll help you understand everything in a couple of minutes.

What are drones?

Drone Images

Drones, or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), are pretty much what they sound like – flying machines that can be operated from a remote location by human operators. They can also fly on their own with the help of pre-programmed instructions and that’s what this article is all about. These tech gadgets are equipped with sensors such as cameras, GPS, and altimeters, which help them gather information about their surroundings and maneuver through the air. By inputting commands, either manually or through a software program, operators can make the drone adjust its speed, altitude, and direction of flight. Drones have a wide range of applications, from capturing stunning aerial shots to aiding in search and rescue missions, conducting scientific research, and even delivering packages from eCommerce and logistic companies.

Traditional Drones vs Autonomous Drones?

Autonomous drones, in contrast to traditional drones which are controlled by external operators like you and me, use cutting-edge technologies such as various types of sensors, multi-perspective cameras, and artificial intelligence (AI) software, etc. to navigate through the airspace by themselves.

Some of the common types of sensors that are being used by these types of drones introduced by major players in the industry include GPS sensors, altimeters, and obstacle detection sensors which enable them to receive information about their surroundings and choose their best and shortest flying path. Working in a synchronized manner, these sensors produce a 3D representation of the drone’s surroundings that enables it to recognize and avoid obstacles in real-time.

To know more about differences, you shall visit my previous article Traditional Drones vs Autonomous Drones — DataSagar Blog

How do autonomous drones work as air taxis?

Autonomous drones as air taxis have the potential to transform urban transportation. Picture this: you’re standing in the heart of a bustling city, and instead of hailing a traditional taxi or waiting for public transportation, you hop into a sleek, futuristic-looking drone. With a seamless takeoff and landing, these drones eliminate the need for runways and can navigate crowded urban environments with ease.

The technology behind these autonomous drones is truly remarkable. They are designed to take off and land vertically, eliminating the need for traditional runways or landing strips. This vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) capability allows them to operate in densely populated areas where space is limited. Equipped with powerful propulsion systems, they can reach impressive speeds, whisking passengers through the air in a fraction of the time it would take using conventional ground transportation.

A crucial capability of these drones is navigating challenging urban areas. They feature cutting-edge cameras, sensors, and artificial intelligence algorithms. Together, these elements produce a thorough real-time map of the area, allowing drones to recognize and steer clear of objects like buildings, other aircraft, and even birds. A safe and effective flight for passengers is ensured by this level of situational awareness.

For air taxi services, a number of businesses are actively developing autonomous drones. For instance, the German aviation company Volocopter has carried out manned test flights of its electric vertical takeoff and landing (eVTOL) drone with success. With their autonomous eVTOL drone, the EHang 184, Chinese drone firm EHang has also made tremendous progress. These businesses, along with others, are at the forefront of the creation of autonomous drones that have the potential to transform urban transportation by offering an easy-to-use air taxi service.

Detailed article on Drones Carrying Passengers - Current Developments from Ehang, Volocopter, Uber, and Airbus — DataSagar Blog

Potential Benefits of Using Drones as Air Taxis:

The benefits of utilizing autonomous drones as air taxis are truly remarkable and have the potential to revolutionize urban mobility. One of the most significant advantages lies in the potential reduction of traffic congestion. With cities becoming increasingly crowded, roadways are reaching their limits, resulting in frustrating gridlock during peak hours. By taking to the skies, autonomous drones can alleviate this burden on ground transportation, offering an alternative mode of travel that bypasses congested roads and brings relief to commuters.

The speed and efficiency of autonomous drones also contribute to their appeal. These drones are designed to operate at high speeds, enabling passengers to reach their destinations swiftly. With no obstructions such as traffic lights or intersections to impede their progress, air taxis can provide a significantly faster mode of transportation. This efficiency is especially valuable for time-sensitive situations, such as business meetings or emergency responses, where every minute counts.

In addition to addressing traffic congestion and improving transportation speed, autonomous drones can help overcome challenges associated with limited road space. Urban areas often face the issue of scarce parking spots and overcrowded streets, which further exacerbates congestion. By utilizing the airspace, air taxis free up ground-level space, reducing the strain on existing infrastructure and providing more efficient use of urban areas.

The environmental benefits of autonomous drones as air taxis are also noteworthy. As these drones are often electrically powered, they produce zero direct emissions, unlike conventional vehicles that rely on fossil fuels. By reducing the number of vehicles on the road and replacing them with electric-powered air taxis, we can make significant strides toward mitigating air pollution and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This move towards cleaner transportation aligns with the growing global focus on sustainability and combating climate change.

Moreover, the safety advantages of autonomous drones cannot be overlooked. Advanced sensors and AI technology enable drones to detect and avoid obstacles in real-time, minimizing the risk of accidents. Additionally, centralized monitoring and control systems can enhance safety by monitoring and managing the entire fleet of air taxis, ensuring adherence to flight paths and regulations.

By embracing autonomous drones as air taxis, we can tackle some of the most pressing challenges faced by urban mobility today. These drones offer a promising solution to alleviate traffic congestion, provide faster and more efficient transportation, optimize limited road space, reduce environmental impact, and enhance overall safety. As technology continues to advance and regulations evolve, autonomous drones have the potential to revolutionize the way we move within cities, unlocking a new era of smart and sustainable urban mobility.

Key challenges and concerns associated with air taxis

While autonomous drones as air taxis hold immense promise, there are several challenges and concerns that must be carefully addressed to ensure their successful integration into urban transportation systems. One of the primary challenges lies in the realm of regulations. As this technology is relatively new, regulatory frameworks need to be established to govern the safe and responsible operation of autonomous drones in urban airspace.

Issues such as flight regulations, air traffic management, and integration with existing aviation systems need to be carefully navigated to ensure smooth and secure operations.

Safety concerns also arise when considering the use of autonomous drones as air taxis. Although these drones are equipped with advanced sensors and AI technology to detect and avoid obstacles, there is always a possibility of technical malfunctions or unforeseen circumstances. Robust safety protocols and redundant systems need to be implemented to minimize risks and ensure passenger safety.

Another critical aspect is public acceptance. Introducing autonomous drones into the urban airspace may face skepticism or resistance from the public due to concerns about privacy. The use of cameras and sensors on these drones raises legitimate privacy concerns, and it is crucial to establish transparent policies and protocols for data collection, usage, and storage. Engaging with communities and stakeholders, along with clear communication about privacy safeguards, will be vital in gaining public trust and acceptance.

Noise pollution is another potential challenge associated with autonomous drones as air taxis. Urban areas are already subject to various noise sources, and the addition of a fleet of drones could exacerbate the issue. Developing quieter propulsion systems and implementing flight routes that minimize disturbances to residential areas can help mitigate noise concerns and ensure minimal disruption to the urban environment.

There is also a legitimate concern about potential job displacement. As autonomous drones become more prevalent, traditional transportation industries, such as taxi services or delivery drivers, could experience changes in employment opportunities. It will be essential to proactively address this concern by exploring new roles and opportunities that emerge as a result of this technology, as well as providing training and support for affected workers to transition into new sectors.

Addressing these challenges and concerns will require a collaborative effort between technology developers, regulatory bodies, communities, and stakeholders. By ensuring robust regulations, prioritizing safety measures, respecting privacy, addressing noise concerns, and proactively managing the impact on employment, we can work towards a responsible and sustainable integration of autonomous drones as air taxis. By doing so, we can unlock the immense potential of this technology while upholding the values and needs of our communities.

Potential Future Applications of Air Taxis

Being a hardcore technology enthusiast, I’m truly excited about the future of autonomous drones as air taxis and their transformative impact on urban mobility. The continuous advancements in technology and the growing interest in smart urban air mobility are paving the way for a new era of transportation.

In the coming years, at least we can expect to see a significant expansion in this field. With ongoing developments in AI algorithms and sensor technology, these drones are expected to become even more adept at navigating complex urban environments, optimizing flight paths autonomously, and seamlessly integrating into existing transportation systems side by side. Alongside passenger transportation, autonomous drones will find applications in cargo delivery and emergency response services, revolutionizing the logistics industry and aiding in critical situations. With the establishment of dedicated landing pads and charging stations, we can envision a future where autonomous drones become an integral part of the urban landscape, offering faster, more efficient, and more sustainable transportation options.

Additionally, the potential of autonomous drones extends beyond our planet. Visionaries like Elon Musk, Founder of Tesla, are actively exploring the possibility of building a livable city on Mars. In such extraterrestrial environments, where traditional infrastructure is limited, autonomous drones could play a crucial role in transportation, exploration, and resource management. Imagine drones conducting aerial surveys, delivering supplies to Martian habitats, and assisting in scientific research.

While still in the realm of imagination, the concept of autonomous drones as integral components of future Martian cities highlights the endless possibilities that lie ahead in our quest to explore and colonize other planets.

As per my level of understanding, The road ahead may have its challenges, including regulatory frameworks, public acceptance, and technological advancements. However, the potential benefits of autonomous drones as air taxis are immense for the foreseeable future. They have the power to reduce traffic congestion, improve transportation efficiency, and transform the way we move within cities. As we move forward, we are optimistic about a future where autonomous drones seamlessly coexist with traditional transportation methods, offering a new dimension of mobility that enhances our lives and positively impacts urban environments.


Thanks for reaching up to this point. To conclude, the potential of autonomous drones as air taxis holds immense promise for smart urban air mobility in the foreseeable future. These advanced flying machines have the ability to reduce traffic congestion, provide faster and more efficient transportation, and address key challenges in urban mobility. With ongoing advancements in technology and regulatory frameworks, we can anticipate a future where autonomous drones seamlessly integrate into our urban transportation systems.

As we look ahead, it is essential to address concerns and ensure safety, privacy, and public acceptance. By proactively tackling these challenges, we can unlock the full potential of such drones as air taxis and reap the benefits of improved urban mobility.

At DataSagar, we envision a future where autonomous drones revolutionize the way we move within cities, offering a sustainable and efficient mode of transportation. As these remarkable technologies continue to evolve, we are excited to witness the positive impact they will have on our daily lives and the transformation of our urban landscapes.

The future of air taxis is bright, and we are eager to witness the exciting developments that lie ahead. With each step forward, we move closer to a future where urban transportation becomes smarter, faster, and more sustainable, empowering individuals and communities to thrive in our rapidly evolving world.

Cheers and Happy Learnning!

Revving Up in 2022: Best-Selling Cars, Top EV Producers, and Brand Sales Figures in the Global Automotive Industry

Namaste and Greetings from Nepal. I was trying to inspect the EV trends worldwide out of my curiosity and finally decided to write this blog post. In this post, I will be discussing some of the most notable statistics in the automotive industry in 2022. I’ll try to summarize statistics and my findings which could help you to get data-driven insights. The automotive industry is one of the most dynamic industries in the world, with new trends emerging every year. From electric vehicles to self-driving cars, the industry is constantly evolving to meet the changing needs of consumers.

Best-selling car models worldwide in 2022:

The Toyota Corolla has been the best-selling car model worldwide in 2022 with 1.12 million units sold. This is followed by the Toyota RAV-4 with 870,000 units sold and the Ford F-Series with 790,000 units sold. The Tesla Model Y, which was released in 2020, has quickly become one of the best-selling cars worldwide, with 760,000 units sold in 2022. Other popular car models on the list include the Toyota Camry, Honda CR-V, Chevrolet Silverado, Hyundai Tucson, Toyota Hilux, and Ram Pickup.

Image: DataSagar

% Share of Global EV Production:

In 2022, electric vehicles (EVs) continue to grow in popularity, with many automakers increasing their production of EVs. According to the statistics, the Chinese automaker BYD has the largest share of global EV production with 18.1%, followed by Tesla with 12.8%, and Volkswagen (VW) with 8.2%. General Motors (GM) and Stellantis (a merger between Fiat Chrysler and PSA Group) round out the top five with 5.7% and 5.0% respectively. Other notable automakers on the list include Hyundai, BMW, Geely Auto, Mercedes-Benz, and Renault-Nissan Mitsubishi.

Image: DataSagar

Annual Growth Rate of Top 10 EV Companies in 2022:

In terms of annual growth rate, BYD is leading the way with an impressive 211%, followed by Geely Auto with 251%. Tesla, which has been a leader in the EV market for years, still shows a solid growth rate of 40%. Stellantis also shows impressive growth with a rate of 34%. Other automakers on the list with notable growth rates include Hyundai, BMW, and Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi.

Image: DataSagar

Highest selling car brand in the USA 2022:

The highest selling car brand in the USA in 2022 is Ford with 1,764,267 units sold, followed closely by Toyota with 1,755,552 units sold. Chevrolet is third on the list with 1,512,875 units sold. Other popular car brands on the list include Honda, Hyundai, Jeep, Nissan, Kia, Subaru, Ram, Tesla, and GMC.

Image: DataSagar

Best-selling Mercedes model in USA 2022:

When it comes to Mercedes, the GLC is the best-selling model in the USA in 2022 with 65,531 units sold. The GLE follows closely with 63,050 units sold, and the C-Class with 26,192 units sold. Other popular models on the list include the GLB, GLS, E-Class/CLS, and S-Class.

Image: DataSagar

These statistics give us a good idea of the current state of the automotive industry in 2022. While traditional car models like the Toyota Corolla and Ford F-Series remain popular, EVs are becoming increasingly popular and more automakers are jumping on board. The data also shows us which brands and models are most popular in the USA, as well as which Mercedes models are currently selling the best.

You shall download the data used in this article from my onedrive here in case if you need it.

Thanks and Happy Learning!

Enhancing Research Skills with Workshop on Research Methodology & Article Writing – Universal College

Namaste and welcome to DataSagar. As an educator and tech guy, I believe that sharing knowledge and experiences can go a long way in promoting growth and development in our field. With this in mind, I am excited to share my insights and learning from the recent workshop on Research Methodology and Article Writing organized by Universal College. This post is an effort to not only share my experiences but also to encourage others to participate in such training programs and to continue to learn and grow in their respective fields. Moving forward, I plan to continue this knowledge-sharing initiative by writing more posts on various topics related to research and academia in the future as well.

To begin with, attending the one-day seminar cum workshop on Research Methodology & Article Writing organized by Universal College Today(4/29/2023) was an enlightening experience for me. The workshop was aimed at equipping participants with the knowledge and skills necessary to write compelling research reports and journal articles.

The workshop was delivered by Dr. David Prasad Bashyal, an experienced researcher and scholar who has published numerous research papers and articles in reputable journals. Dr. Bashyal’s insights and practical tips on the research process, data collection, analysis, and reporting were invaluable.

For Your Information,

Dr. David Prasad Basyal is a highly qualified and experienced professional with a Ph.D. in Public Management from Incheon National University (INU), South Korea, an MPhil and MA in Economics from TU, Nepal, and an MBA in Marketing from the University of Gloucestershire (UoG), UK. He has diverse work experiences ranging from education to marketing, sales, HR, medicine, rural development, and more. Dr. Basyal has an extroverted nature and a keen interest in the daily happenings of people, the economy, government, public policy, and business activities. 
His expertise in monitoring and evaluation has been instrumental in his work as a Monitoring and Evaluation Expert at Social Welfare Council Nepal. His knowledge and experience in various fields made his session insightful and highly relevant to the attendees of the workshop. Dr. Basyal's contribution to the workshop was highly appreciated, and we look forward to his future contributions to promoting research and knowledge creation.

During the workshop, we learned about the different types of research and the importance of choosing the right research methodology. We also learned about the various steps involved in the research process, including data collection, analysis, and interpretation.

Dr. Basyal also discussed the prerequisites of research writing, including citation and referencing. He emphasized the importance of selecting a research topic that has significance, novelty, curiosity, scope, and actionability. He also discussed the process of writing the introduction of a research paper, focusing on creating a skeleton and writing it after the completion of the paper. Furthermore, Dr. Basyal discussed the critical elements of the literature review, including the aim, what to include, methods, and more. He also highlighted the importance of selecting target journals and considering the Journal Impact Factor (JIF) when submitting research articles. Overall, the workshop was a valuable experience that equipped attendees with the essential skills and knowledge required for research writing.

The workshop also covered the art of journal article writing, which is a critical component of the research process. Dr. Bashyal provided us with practical tips on how to structure and format research articles, as well as how to write clearly and concisely.

In addition to learning about research methodology and article writing, the workshop also introduced us to several research and citation tools that can help make the research process more efficient and effective. One of the tools we discussed in the workshop was Mendeley, a popular reference management software. Mendeley is a user-friendly and powerful tool that allows researchers to organize their references, generate citations and bibliographies, and collaborate with others on research projects.

Mendeley can be used to store and manage references from different sources, such as academic journals, books, and websites. The software also has a powerful search engine that allows users to quickly and easily find relevant literature for their research projects. Another great feature of Mendeley is its citation generation capability. Mendeley supports various citation styles, including APA, MLA, Chicago, and Harvard, making it easy for researchers to create accurate and consistent citations and bibliographies. During the workshop, we learned how to use Mendeley effectively with MS Word Plugin and how it can help us streamline the research process. By using Mendeley, we can save time and avoid errors when organizing our references and generating citations.

Moreover, The program was focused to promote a research culture among faculties from which our students can get benefited later on. The Universal College publishes a journal every year which is called “The Harvest”. The main objective of the workshop was to enhance and refine research skills among educators and ensure the quality of the articles in “The Harvest” as well.

For your knowledge, The Harvest is a renowned publication of Universal College, affiliated with Tribhuvan University in Nepal, that aims to promote research in multidisciplinary fields among management as well as technology diaspora. This annual publication includes research-based articles from management fields to humanities, social sciences, and technology, etc. which are reviewed by a double-blind peer-review process. The journal follows APA and MLA format systems and includes articles that shed light on research reviews, analyses, and discussions that contribute to the stock of knowledge.

The concluding session of the workshop was marked by the remarks of BBA Coordinator Mr. Sibahari Mainali and the Principal of Universal College, Dr. Shiva Datta Gnawali . They appreciated the efforts of Dr. Basyal and the attendees for making the workshop a success. Participants also shared their experiences and expressed their gratitude for the valuable insights they gained from the workshop. At the end of the program, a Certificate of Participation was awarded to all the attendees, marking the successful completion of the workshop. The workshop was undoubtedly a significant step towards enhancing research skills and promoting research-based activities in the academic community.

These kinds of skill-enhancing programs are sure to enhance faculty members and students develop independent critical thinking skills, expand their understanding, discover and create new knowledge, and disseminate it to others.

Overall, The workshop on Research Methodology & Article Writing, which I attended, was a fantastic opportunity to learn about research methodology and article writing as well as to learn more about research skills and tools such as Mendeley. I am confident that the knowledge and skills I gained will be invaluable as I continue to pursue my research interests in the field of Data Science, Business Intelligence, and Electronic Tourism. I am looking forward to applying my learning and sharing my own research findings with the tech community very soon with an article of my own.

I would like to express my gratitude to Universal College for organizing such a useful and informative workshop, and to Dr. David Prasad Bashyal for sharing his insights and expertise.

Thanks and happy learning.

Microsoft developing its own AI chip Athena to reduce Machine Learning costs — DataSagar

Welcome back to yet another blog post on DataSagar! This post is a continuation of my blog series on Artificial Intelligence. As a technology educator and e-business consultant, I aim to provide insightful articles and helpful tips to keep you up-to-date with the latest developments in the world of tech. In this article, we’ll be discussing Microsoft’s latest project: developing its own artificial intelligence (AI) chip code named “Athena.”

Microsoft is reportedly working on their new chip project called Athena which is supposed to be an AI processor intended to power the technology powering AI chatbots like ChatGPT, which will be used to train the substantial language models required by generative AI. Massive volumes of data are provided by these chatbots, which can also spot trends and imitate human speech. Microsoft expects Athena to outperform the chips it presently purchases from other vendors, saving time and money on its pricey AI research and development.

The market for these chips is presently dominated by Nvidia, but Microsoft aims to change that with Athena. Developed in 2019, the chip is now being tested by a small team of Microsoft and OpenAI staff members. Athena is reportedly being developed by more than 300 employees, and Microsoft anticipates that it will be offered to Azure users by the end of the year.

According to Dylan Patel, principal analyst at SemiAnalysis, “Microsoft wants to use large language models in all of their applications, including Bing, Microsoft 365, and GitHub.” The corporation might save tens of billions of dollars as a result.

As a result of ChatGPT’s success, Microsoft is quickening the rollout of Athena. In an effort to compete with Google and capitalize on its cooperation with OpenAI, Microsoft earlier this year released Bing AI, its own AI-powered search engine.

Microsoft’s upcoming Surface PCs will also come with an NPU (neural processing unit) to speed up on-device artificial intelligence and machine learning (ML), in addition to Athena. Microsoft now employs chipsets with NPUs from AMD, Intel, and Qualcomm, all of which are currently adding them to their microprocessors.

It is obvious that Microsoft is making significant investments in AI, and with the creation of Athena, it aspires to dominate the AI chip industry. Although Nvidia presently rules the market, it is still unclear how Microsoft’s chip will function and whether it will be able to challenge the top chip maker. Whatever the case, AI and technology as a whole are in an exciting phase right now, and we can’t wait to see what the future brings.

The idea of developing AI chips internally is not new; companies like Amazon, Google, and Facebook already produce AI chips. It’s an increasing trend as tech behemoths grasp AI’s potential and how it can completely transform the market. These businesses can save costs on their time- and money-consuming AI endeavors with the development of AI chips.

Additionally, the epidemic has increased technology use and raised demand for AI-powered products and services. In light of this, Microsoft’s investment in AI chips may prove to be a big step forward for the business, allowing it to increase its product offerings and competence in the AI sector.

You should know that ChatGPT and other language models need high-capacity AI devices to do their computations effectively. The size and complexity of the model determine how much processing power is needed.

Modern language generation models like ChatGPT, which are built on the GPT-3 architecture and trained using enormous amounts of data, demand a lot of computing power. Depending on the situation, ChatGPT may consume more or less processing power, although it normally needs strong GPU clusters or specialist AI chips.

For instance, a supercomputer with approximately 3,000 graphics processing units (GPUs) and 192 server-class CPUs was used to train the greatest version of GPT-3, which has 175 billion parameters. Although ChatGPT is a more compact model than GPT-3, it still needs a lot of computing power to function properly.

And yes, whatever it be, Microsoft’s creation of its own AI chip is a positive step forward for the field of artificial intelligence. Microsoft expects that Athena will outperform the chips it presently purchases from other vendors, saving time and resources on its pricey AI research and development. AI is undoubtedly the technology of the future, and by making this investment, Microsoft is establishing itself as a significant player in the AI chip industry. It will be interesting to see how Athena does on the market and how it counters Nvidia’s hegemony.

Can AI Build Another AI System More Advanced Than Itself? Exploring the Possibility and Implications

In recent years, the topic of artificial intelligence (AI), which is quickly developing, has attracted a lot of attention. Being a technopreneur and computer science educator, I’ve been paying great attention to this subject as the AI revolution started to hit the world more strongly than ever. I’ll try to cover whether AI can create a system that is more potent than itself in this blog post.

Firstly, Let’s define AI before putting forward an opinion. The term Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be understood simply as computer programs that can carry out tasks that ordinarily require human intelligence. Content Generation and Translation of languages, speech recognition, decision-making, and visual perception are a few of them. A subset of Artificial Intelligence(AI) called machine learning enables systems to learn from data and enhance their performance over time.

Image by Freepik

So, the main question is, “Can AI thereby develop more potent AI systems?”. I think Yes, that is feasible. AI systems can be trained to create increasingly complex AI systems as they continue to learn and collect more data. Also, Machine learning that is automated is known as AutoML. You might already have heard about this term. A number of IT firms are already employing AutoML to build intricate AI models that can be leveraged to build even more sophisticated systems. This sets up a cycle of exponential growth that might someday result in the development of incredibly potent AI.

Secondly, It’s important to remember, though, that the emergence of more sophisticated AI systems does not portend the extinction of humanity. Despite the fact that AI is capable of performing many activities that people do, it cannot replace human experience and emotions at least in near future. In many businesses, empathy, inventiveness, and interpersonal contact are essential skills that machines cannot take the place of.

In addition, massive volumes of data are needed for AI systems to learn and advance. Humans must contribute this data, and restrictions must be put in place to guarantee that AI systems are operating properly. In order to guarantee that AI is used ethically and responsibly, human oversight is essential.

There is a chance that AI could create more sophisticated AI systems in the future. However, it’s imperative to go slowly and make sure that AI is used in an ethical and responsible manner. Humans will still be necessary for giving data and supervising AI systems as they develop. It’s more likely that AI will be utilized to boost productivity and efficiency across a range of industries than it will be to completely replace people.

At last, What do you think about AI and the possibilities for developing more sophisticated AI systems? Comment below with your thoughts, and don’t forget to share this article with anyone you think would be interested in the subject. Have a good day!

Twitter “no longer exists” as a result of the merger with X Corp

Well, folks, it looks like Twitter is no more! That’s right, the beloved social media platform has gone through a bit of an identity crisis and decided to merge with a new shell firm called X Corp. It’s kind of like when your friend gets a new boyfriend/girlfriend and suddenly start going by a different name – except in this case, it’s a billion-dollar company and we’re all left wondering what the heck is going on. It’s almost too funny to say that Twitter has become X, but here we are! haha!

Elon Musk’s intentions for the social media platform have been the subject of rumors following the recent merging of Twitter and the newly created X Corp. Twitter “no longer exists” as a result of the merger with X Corp, claims a document filed in a California court for a case brought by conservative activist Laura Loomer against the company and its former CEO Jack Dorsey. The document is getting attention on social media platforms since yesterday.

Although the effects of this move are not yet evident, it is important to remember that Twitter has experienced considerable adjustments since Musk purchased the business for $44 billion last year. The billionaire has previously made suggestions that Twitter might become a “everything app” under the X name, perhaps competing with Chinese social media giant WeChat.

Despite the absence of official statements, there are rumors that this merger may mark the beginning of the development of the X app. It is also conceivable that this action may lead to the creation of a larger parent organization called X that would govern all of Musk’s ventures, including Tesla and SpaceX.

It’s interesting to note that Twitter is now headquartered in Nevada rather than Delaware under X Corp. However, the new X Corp will inherit all of the debts and lawsuits that Twitter and Musk faced before to the merger.

The fact that Elon Musk now owns the “” domain, which he previously used for a payment service that was incorporated into PayPal, fuels even more rumors about what he has in store for the X name.

On Tuesday, Musk tweeted about the change with just the letter “X.” as well.

It is crucial to remember that Twitter is still a fully functional social media network, but debate still surrounds the types of content and individuals it allows and disallows. Many members of the IT community are turning to other platforms for safety as a result as well.

Concerns regarding the future of the social media platform have been sparked by the merging of Twitter and X Corp. Even while it’s yet unclear whether this merger will result in the development of the X app or whether it’s simply a part of a bigger reorganization of Musk’s properties, it’s obvious that it’s a big deal for Twitter and its future.

Threats and attacks in Network Environment

A critical component of the contemporary digital environment is network security. The prevalence of internet-connected gadgets and cloud computing has increased the frequency of network security risks and attacks. The infrastructure, data, and reputation of a business could all suffer severe harm as a result of these risks and attacks. We will talk about many dangers and attacks in a networked environment one-by-one in this article.

Malware, often known as malicious software, is a category of a program intended to harm, interfere with, or allow unauthorized access to a computer system. Malware is one sort of attack. Malicious software, including viruses, trojan horses, worms, and spyware, can spread throughout a network and infect numerous computers, seriously jeopardizing the security of the entire system. This means Malware can take many different shapes, including viruses, trojan horses, worms, and spyware. These dangerous applications have the potential to proliferate throughout the network and infect several systems, seriously jeopardizing network security.

Another danger is phishing, which employs deceptive strategies to coerce people into disclosing personal data like passwords and usernames. These attacks may take the shape of emails, pop-up windows, or phony websites made to look like the real thing. In another word, Phishing is a type of social engineering attack that uses dubious methods to get people to divulge private information like usernames and passwords. These assaults frequently take the shape of emails, pop-up windows, or phony websites that imitate trustworthy ones. Once the attacker obtains the data, they can access the network and jeopardize the security of the system.

Network security can also be compromised by denial-of-service (DoS) and distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. These attacks are intended to flood a network or a particular system with traffic, rendering it inaccessible to authorized users. DoS and DDoS assaults have the potential to seriously disrupt enterprises and result in large financial losses.

Attacks known as “man-in-the-middle” (MitM) occur when an attacker eavesdrops on a conversation between two parties in order to access and alter the data being transferred. Attackers can insert harmful code into databases through SQL injection attacks, which target poorly protected databases.

Attacks using passwords are another danger. Automated password attacks are possible and can use a variety of methods, including brute force, dictionary, and rainbow table attacks. An attacker can access the network and compromise its security once they have the password.

Last but not least, insider threats can be deliberate or accidental. When a worker or contractor with access to the network harmed the network purposefully or accidentally, it is referred to insider threat. Data theft, sabotage, and illegal network access are some examples of insider risks.

Safeguarding the security of electronic commerce networks requires an understanding of the various threats and assaults. Networks can be protected from potential threats and attacks by implementing the right security measures, such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and anti-malware software.

How to enable Microsoft Loop Application from Microsoft 365 Admin Panel

Namaste and Greetings to everyone. I’m here with yet another blog post on a very common problem that your educational institution might be facing while trying to use a productivity app called Microsoft Loop.

If you’re receiving this kind of message while trying to log into Microsoft Loop then, this blog is absolutely for you. If you’re not of the kind, also don’t worry. You’ll be learning an awesome productivity tool from Microsoft for Microsoft 365 users.

Image: datasagar

To begin with,

FYI, Microsoft Loop is a brand-new productivity tool that enables flexible and visual work organization and collaboration. You can make and manage notes, tasks, and documents all in one location using Loop. We’ll go over how to activate the Microsoft Loop application in Microsoft 365 in this article.

Step 1: Verify that Microsoft Loop is accessible through your Microsoft 365 account.
Make sure your Microsoft 365 account has access to Loop before you enable the Microsoft Loop application. Only a select group of subscribers, including Microsoft 365 Enterprise and Education customers, have access to Loop at this time. Consult your IT administrator if you’re not sure if your account has access to Loop.

Step 2: Log in to Microsoft 365
You must sign in to your Microsoft 365 account in order to enable Microsoft Loop. Enter your email address and password on the Microsoft 365 login page at

Step 3: Access the Microsoft 365 Admin center
To access the Microsoft 365 Admin center, click the Admin app after logging into Microsoft 365. This application is normally found in the screen’s upper left corner, in the app launcher.

Step 4: Turn on Microsoft Loop for your business.
Click Settings > Org settings in the Microsoft 365 Admin center. Click Microsoft Loop under the Services section after scrolling down. Toggle the option to enable Microsoft Loop for your company after that.

Step 5: Access Microsoft Loop
Microsoft Loop may be accessed after it has been activated for your company by heading to the Microsoft 365 app launcher and clicking on the Loop icon. A new tab will open with the Loop app.

Step 6: You’re done! Start utilizing Microsoft Loop
You can begin using the Microsoft Loop app to arrange your work as soon as it has been launched. You can import existing notes, tasks, and documents from other Microsoft 365 programs like Word and Excel, or you can create new ones. By sharing your Loop workspaces with others and giving team members assignments, you can collaborate with them as well.

ChatGPT’s VSCode Extension – Write Code with Natural Language Instructions

The capacity of ChatGPT, a sizable language model developed by OpenAI, to produce text that resembles human speech has made it more and more well-liked. With recent improvisation in ChatGPT 4, it can support many different languages, including Nepali as well. For your information, The addition of Nepali language support in ChatGPT 4 enables Nepali users to use it for a range of tasks, including text generation, question-and-answer translation, and text generation in Nepali. This can be very helpful for people or companies operating in Nepal or dealing with clients or customers that speak Nepali. With wonderful features and capabilities being advanced day by day, the OpenAI team is doing a wonderful job.

One remarkable application of ChatGPT is a VS Code addon that enables programmers to produce full blocks of code and code snippets using natural language instructions.

I’ll try to highlight the capabilities and advantages of the ChatGPT VS Code addon in this article and discuss how it might enhance your development experience along with steps to install it.

The ChatGPT VS Code Extension’s features

A number of features offered by the ChatGPT VS Code addon enable programmers to create code in response to orders given in natural language. Some of the extension’s main characteristics are listed below:

  1. Code generation utilizing natural language commands is possible with the ChatGPT VS Code addon. For instance, the extension will generate the code for the function when a developer types “make a function that adds two numbers”.
  2. The add-on offers a variety of code snippets that are simple to put into your code. These code snippets, which are intended to save developers time and effort, are available in a wide variety of programming languages.
  3. Based on the context of your code, the addon also offers code completion ideas. Developers may write code more quickly and with fewer errors as a result.
  4. The plugin can identify flaws in your code and offer recommendations for how to solve them. Developers may spend less time and effort troubleshooting their code as a result.
  5. You can modify the extension to meet your needs as well. You have a variety of options, including the programming languages you want to use and the code samples you want to utilize.

The ChatGPT VS Code Extension’s advantages

Developers can gain from the ChatGPT VS Code addon in a number of ways. Here are a few of the main advantages:

  1. Time-saving: By creating code snippets and completing code blocks, the addon can help developers save time. Developers may write code more quickly and with fewer errors as a result.
  2. Error Prevention: By offering advice on how to resolve them, the plugin can assist in preventing errors in your code. Developers may spend less time and effort troubleshooting their code as a result.
  3. Productivity Enhancement: By offering code completion recommendations and mistake detection, the addon can assist in increasing developer productivity.
  4. Accessibility: Those who are unfamiliar with programming languages may find coding to be more approachable thanks to the extension. This may contribute to the democratization and inclusivity of coding.
  5. Customization: The extension can be tailored to your preferences, which can enhance and make coding more pleasurable for you.

The ChatGPT VS Code addon is, all things considered, a useful tool for developers who wish to increase the quality of their software. We’ll now go towards How To Install ChatGPT extension in VS Code.

Steps to install ChatGPT Extension in VS Code

  1. On your computer, launch Visual Studio Code (VS Code).
  2. On the VS Code window’s left side, select the “Extensions” icon (it looks like four squares).
  3. Type “ChatGPT” into the search box at the top of the window.
  4. Search for and choose the “ChatGPT” extension from the search results.
  5. Go to the extension page and click the “Install” button.
  6. Wait the extension’s installation. To enable the addon, VS Code might need to be reloaded.

After installing the extension, you can use it by entering natural language commands in the VS Code editor to begin utilizing it.

Test your installation with Ctrl+Shift+A shortcut and You may be asked to enter Open AI API key to store your sessions detail only. You can get Open AI API for ChatGPT VS Code Extension by going to this link Account API Keys – OpenAI API

By selecting “Preferences: Open User Settings” and looking up “ChatGPT,” you can further personalize the extension’s settings. The accessible programming languages and code snippets in the extension can then be modified from there.

Congratulations, You’re now set to experience ChatGPT with your VS Code, a strong tool that can assist you in writing code using natural language instructions. A variety of capabilities offered by the extension can help developers like you save time and effort and work more efficiently. Additionally, by enabling those who are not conversant in programming languages to write code, the extension can increase accessibility and inclusivity in the field of coding.

Microsoft vs Google – Who’ll win the Generative AI Race?

Many tech behemoths, like Microsoft and Google, have made artificial intelligence a significant area of research. These businesses have made significant investments in the creation of generative AI models that can generate creative media such as music, films, and photos. The competition between Microsoft and Google to build generative AI will be discussed in this article, as well as how each company’s methods have significantly advanced the area.

On the basis of patterns and data inputs, generative AI models are intended to produce creative content. These models create new content based on patterns they find and repeat using deep learning techniques. Since they have been used to produce everything from virtual art to music, generative AI models have grown in popularity.

Research on Generative AI at Microsoft

Microsoft has been at the forefront of generative AI research, with their research team publishing multiple papers on the topic. Microsoft’s DeepDream algorithm, which creates surreal, hallucinogenic pictures using neural networks, is one of the company’s most well-known generative AI initiatives. Microsoft also created the GPT-3 language model, which can produce writing that is grammatically accurate and cohesive.

Microsoft’s Image Captioning Algorithm, which use deep learning to evaluate images and produce insightful captions, is another noteworthy effort. Also, Microsoft researchers created an AI system that can create accurate 3D models of goods from a single image, which has the potential to enhance product display in e-commerce.

Research on Generative AI at Google

The Google Brain research team has been working hard to understand generative AI models, and they have published multiple papers on the subject. The Magenta project at Google, which focuses on employing AI algorithms to produce music, is one of the company’s most noteworthy generative AI initiatives. Magenta has created some original works that have received attention for their excellence and originality.

Google has developed the DeepDream algorithm, which is similar to Microsoft’s algorithm in that it uses neural networks to generate strange, hallucinogenic pictures. Also, the research group at Google created the WaveNet generative model, which can produce music and speech that seem realistic.

Competition between Google and Microsoft

Much progress has been made in the field of generative AI as a result of the rivalry between Microsoft and Google. These businesses make significant investments in R&D and are continually pushing the limits of what is achievable with generative AI models.

Microsoft and Google are approaching generative AI research from various angles, with Microsoft concentrating on language models and picture processing and Google concentrating on music and speech. Yet, both businesses are creating novel algorithms and models that are expanding the realm of generative AI’s capabilities.

Who will win the race then?

Both Google and Microsoft have made important strides in generative AI, and both firms have developed models that are well-respected, such as Google’s GPT model and Microsoft’s Turing-NLG model. Together with Google and Microsoft, these companies have created models like BigGAN and DALL-E that can produce high-resolution images from textual descriptions.

Both businesses have made progress in recent years in creating AI systems that can communicate with people in normal language, with Microsoft’s Xiaoice and Google’s Meena serving as famous examples.

Therefore, it’s tough to proclaim a clear winner in the race for generative AI, as both companies have made remarkable advancements in this discipline. It’s important to keep in mind that there are a lot of other businesses and groups working on generative AI, and the subject is always changing, so the current situation may change in the future.

Is Real State B2B or B2C? – eCommerce

Hi everyone, welcome to datasagar. Many of you might have been confused about what category of E-commerce online real estate companies belong to. Here, I’ll try to decipher it for you.

Depending on the type of real estate transaction and the parties involved, the real estate sector can be classified as either a B2B (business-to-business) or a B2C (business-to-consumer) enterprise.

A real estate agent or broker deals directly with a consumer to purchase, sell, or rent a property in a B2C transaction. The real estate agent offers services like finding properties, listing them, scheduling showings, negotiating offers, and finalizing the sale or lease. This transaction is a B2C relationship because it involves a real estate agent or broker and a single consumer.

Real estate services are offered to other businesses or organizations in a B2B transaction as opposed to to private individuals. For instance, a commercial tenant and a real estate developer might collaborate to lease office space for the tenant’s enterprise. As the transaction in this instance is between the commercial tenant and the real estate developer, it is a B2B relationship.

When a company employs a real estate agent to represent them in the sale or lease of commercial real estate that they own, that is another instance of B2B real estate. Instead of serving a single consumer, the real estate salesperson would be serving the company.

Means, based on the parties involved in the transaction, the real estate business can be classified as either B2B or B2C. Real estate is a flexible and dynamic profession since real estate agents and brokers can offer services to both individual customers and other businesses and organizations.

E-tailing – Online Retailing

Hi everyone, welcome to DataSagar. I’m here with another definition to make your e-commerce understanding even better. And, the term for today is “E-tailing”.

Electronic retailing, sometimes known as “e-tailing,” is the process of selling products and services online. E-tailing is the technique of displaying things, taking payments, and delivering orders all online. Retailers who only do business online are known as e-tailers.

A website or online store where customers may explore products and make purchases using a computer or mobile device is typically involved in e-tailing. By utilizing email marketing or social media platforms, online merchants can promote their goods and connect with potential customers.

E-tailers like Amazon, eBay, and Etsy are a few instances. As more and more individuals shop online for convenience and a greater selection of goods, e-tailing has grown in popularity in recent years.

By fostering entrepreneurship, generating employment opportunities, and assisting the expansion of small and medium-sized businesses, e-tailers around the world are significantly contributing to the country’s economic progress (SMEs). Here are some ways online retailers are boosting the country’s economy:

Increasing employment opportunities: In order to run their businesses, e-tailers need a variety of highly qualified specialists, including web developers, graphic designers, content writers, customer service agents, and logistical staff. E-tailers help the economy expand by providing employment possibilities for people with various skill sets.

By fostering entrepreneurship: generating employment opportunities, and assisting the expansion of small and medium-sized businesses, e-tailers are significantly contributing to the country’s economic progress (SMEs). Here are some ways online retailers are boosting the country’s economy:

Increasing employment opportunities: In order to run their businesses, e-tailers need a variety of highly qualified specialists, including web developers, graphic designers, content writers, customer service agents, and logistical staff. E-tailers help the economy expand by providing employment possibilities for people with various skill sets.

E-tailers make it simple for customers to access a variety of goods and services from the comfort of their homes, increasing consumption. This ease of use has encouraged consumption, which has fueled the expansion of a number of industries, including retail, logistics, and finance.

Encouraging entrepreneurship, creating job opportunities, and supporting the expansion of SMEs, e-tailers are contributing to the development of a more inclusive and dynamic economy.

The Impact of Automation on the Job Market: Insights from Amazon Go and Amazon Fresh

Hi everyone, welcome to DataSagar. There’s no doubt that you’ve heard about the dispelling myths about the impact of disruptive technology and innovation like e-commerce and AI on the job market, specifically Job Loss. In this article, we’ll try to highlight the positive impact of Amazon Go and Amazon Fresh on the new genres of employment opportunities.

To begin with, the advent of new technologies and automation has sparked a wave of fear among the general public, with many people worrying that they will eventually lead to widespread job losses. While it is true that some jobs will inevitably become obsolete, it is also important to recognize that these new technologies have the potential to create new jobs and stimulate economic growth as well. This appears to be particularly true for Amazon, which has pioneered retail innovation and has made significant investments in cutting-edge technology that are altering how we purchase.

One of the most exciting developments from Amazon is the creation of its unmanned stores, Amazon Go and Amazon Fresh.

Some businesses fully automate the entire purchasing experience, from entry to payment, using modern technologies. Using an app and a turnstile, customers can enter the store and make purchases without a cashier. Because the system can track what users take and return, customers are only paid for what they really purchase.

Despite initial concerns that these retailers would result in job losses, they are instead producing new jobs. For instance, in order to reduce labor costs and boost productivity, Amazon has made large investments in automation and robots for its warehouses. Amazon currently employs over a million people, although this figure has increased quickly due to the company’s rapid growth. Additionally, according to a Morgan Stanley report, cities that are home to Amazon fulfillment centers have seen job growth that is higher than the national average.

The same can be said about Amazon Fresh, which plans to eventually have 1,000 stores and is aggressively expanding its grocery store model across the United States. This new technology will likely result in a reduction in the demand for cashiers, but it will also open up new career opportunities in areas like technology development and maintenance as well as customer service and support.

Farming accounted for 30% of American occupations 100 years ago, but today that percentage is less than 1%. Despite this huge transformation, tens of millions of new jobs have been created across many industries, advancing our society and economy. The same will undoubtedly apply to Amazon and other companies that employ technology to develop and enhance their business processes.

It is important to keep in mind that while it is fair to worry about new technologies and how they can affect employment, they also have the potential to increase employment and the economy. Just as our culture and economy have done in the past, we will be able to adapt to new technologies and automation and thrive.

Happy Learning!

E-commerce platforms using Augmented Reality(AR): Shaping the future of online commerce

A hybrid reality can be experienced by consumers thanks to augmented reality (AR), a technology that combines virtual objects with actual environments. To accomplish this, digital images, sounds, or films are superimposed over actual items. This results in a novel way for the user to engage with their surroundings. Mobile devices, wearable technology, and dedicated AR systems are all ways to access augmented reality. Many uses are possible for it, including design, marketing, education, and gaming. AR adds virtual features to the real world, as opposed to Virtual Reality (VR), which replaces it with a virtual environment. You can refer to my previous post on Augmented Reality vs Virtual Reality to understand the difference between AR and VR.

The use of augmented reality (AR) in e-commerce is revolutionizing customer interactions. By enabling buyers to perceive things in their own contexts, see how they fit and appear, and make more educated purchasing decisions, augmented reality (AR) improves the online shopping experience. The constraints of conventional e-commerce, such as the inability to touch, test, or see things before purchasing, are aided by this technology. Moreover, AR opens up new channels for company interaction with consumers, giving them a more customized and engaging shopping experience. Moreover, AR can strengthen brand loyalty, lower return rates, and boost customer happiness. E-commerce companies may beat the competition and give their customers a more seamless and delightful buying experience by utilizing AR technology.

Numerous businesses have already adopted this disruptive technology to improve the consumer experiences they can offer. We can see some well-known e-commerce platforms using augmented reality to give potential customers next-level buying experiences. I’ve included a few of the more well-known platforms here.

  1. IKEA Place: Customers can envision furniture in their homes before making a purchase thanks to IKEA’s augmented reality app.
  2. Wayfair: Before purchasing furniture, shoppers may use Wayfair’s augmented reality app to see how it will look in their homes.
  3. Sephora Virtual Artist: Customers may try on cosmetics and see how various goods look on their faces with the AR app from Sephora.
  4. Amazon AR View: Customers may see things in their homes before purchasing them with the Amazon AR View app.
  5. Hololens by Microsoft: Retailers employ Microsoft’s augmented reality (AR) technology, known as Hololens, to give customers a virtual shopping experience that allows them to interact with products in a 3D environment.
  6. Converse: Customers can virtually try on shoes, view several styles, and get a better notion of how they fit with Converse’s AR app.
  7. Warby Parker: Customers can virtually put on glasses, see how various frames appear on their faces, and get a better understanding of the fit with Warby Parker’s augmented reality (AR) app.
  8. L’Oreal Makeup Genius: Customers may virtually test cosmetics and see how various items look on their faces with L’Oreal’s AR app.
  9. ARby’s: Customers may preview menu items on the ARby’s app before placing their orders, which helps them understand the presentation and portion amounts. items will look before ordering, giving them a better idea of portion sizes and presentation.
  10. Target: Customers can perceive things in their homes with Target’s augmented reality app, creating a virtual shopping experience that enables them to make better purchasing selections.

Technology and innovation at this level will undoubtedly put great pressure on businesses to gain competitive advantages. In the long run, we can anticipate that augmented reality (AR) will significantly change how e-commerce will function. As technology continues to advance and the popularity of AR grows, it is likely that more and more businesses will adopt this technology to provide customers with a more immersive and interactive shopping experience. Customers will no longer need to make physical shopping trips and will find online buying to be more convenient because AR will let them to try on clothing, test out furnishings, and even see how things look in their own houses. Additionally, AR will give companies new ways to interact with clients, resulting in a more individualized buying experience that may boost client happiness and brand loyalty. In general, it is anticipated that AR will have a significant impact on how consumers engage with products and businesses in the future and how e-commerce develops.

Text to Image Generative Artificial Intelligence – 2022

Machine learning that generates new, original data from existing data is known as generative AI. One of the most well-known types of generative AI, text-to-image employs computer algorithms to produce visuals from textual descriptions. Some of the most notable applications of text-to-image AI include the following:

  1. DALL·E 2 (OpenAI) – DALLE 2 (OpenAI) – OpenAI created DALLE 2, a cutting-edge generative AI system. It creates a variety of visuals from verbal descriptions using a transformer network with an emphasis on originality and innovation. This technique is capable of producing very inventive images that are not included in any datasets that already exist.
  2. Stable Diffusion – A generative AI system called Stable Diffusion tries to produce excellent visuals from textual descriptions. To produce realistic and detailed images, the system combines deep learning methods with stability-based optimization.
  3. Neural .love – A generative AI system called is focused on producing visuals of romantic and private settings. With a focus on capturing the spirit of love and intimacy, the system generates visuals from text inputs using a deep learning approach.
  4. Midjourney – A generative AI system called Midjourney tries to produce pictures that convey a narrative. With a focus on encapsulating the feelings and actions of a tale, the system creates visuals based on text inputs using a deep learning approach.
  5. Nightcafe – A generative AI system that specializes in creating photos of nighttime settings is called Nightcafe. The system creates visuals from text inputs using a deep learning approach, aiming to capture the mood and ambience of a nighttime scene.
  6. Craiyon – Craiyon is a generative AI system that seeks to produce pictures of objects and scenes that resemble hand-drawn sketches in terms of aesthetics. The system creates graphics from text inputs using a deep learning approach, aiming to capture the charm and aesthetic of hand-drawn sketches.
  7. Wonder – Wonder is a generative AI system with an emphasis on capturing the wonder and creativity of magical realms. Wonder creates images of fanciful creatures and surroundings using a deep learning approach to generate visuals based on text inputs.
  8. Wombo – With a focus on capturing the movement and animation of objects, Wombo is a generative AI system that excels at creating photographs of moving and animated objects. Wombo uses a deep learning approach to generate images based on text inputs.
  9. Imagen – Imagen is a generative AI system that focuses on capturing the depth and volume of objects and scenes as it creates 3D representations of them. It does this by utilizing deep learning to create images from text inputs.
  10. Pixray – Pixray is a generative AI system that specializes in creating pictures that show how objects are inside out. The system creates images from text inputs using a deep learning approach, with an emphasis on capturing the intrinsic structure and composition of objects.
  11. GauGAN2 by NVIDIA – NVIDIA’s GauGAN2 is a generative AI system that excels at producing beautiful pictures from straightforward sketches. In order to create images from sketches, the system employs a deep learning approach with an emphasis on capturing the tone and specifics of the sketch inputs.

The accuracy of these text-to-image generative AI systems, which I used for research, astounded me particularly. Each system has its own special abilities and methods for creating graphics from text. I have a doubt because these systems are receiving more datasets every day. What do these sites teach users about artificial intelligence, too? The market will be completely transformed by the AI revolution. We can anticipate seeing a wide variety of artworks, technologies, and other things that are unimaginable to us as humans. Please share your thoughts by leaving a comment.

Thanks and Happy Learning!

Exploring the IT Insights of Nepal: A Land of Greenfield Opportunities

Nepal, with its young and educated population, widespread use of English and Hindi, and high mobile phone penetration, has become an interesting destination for IT and technology development. With a median age of just 23.2 years and a literacy rate of 64%, Nepal’s population is poised for growth and innovation in the tech sector.

Despite being ranked #3 in search interest for ChatGPT, Nepal remains relatively untapped in terms of IT development. This presents a unique opportunity for businesses and investors to enter the market and help drive innovation and growth in the country.

Nepal’s large youth population also presents a huge pool of talent that can be harnessed for IT development. With proper investment and development, Nepal can become a hub for IT services and software development, creating job opportunities and contributing to the country’s economic growth.

The Growing Importance of IT in Nepal and the trend in this very ecosystem opening up multidimensional challenges as well. As the world becomes increasingly digitized, the importance of IT and technology in the development of a country cannot be overstated. Nepal, with its favorable demographics and high mobile phone penetration, is well-positioned to take advantage of the opportunities presented by the digital age.

However, as with any developing market, Nepal also faces a number of challenges in the development of its IT sector. Lack of infrastructure and limited access to technology are some of the biggest hurdles that need to be overcome.

Despite these challenges, the potential for growth and development in Nepal’s IT sector is huge. With the right investments and support, Nepal has the potential to become a major player in the global IT industry, creating job opportunities and driving economic growth in the process.

We can clearly say that the growing interest in IT development in Nepal signals a bright future for the country and its people. With its favorable demographics and high mobile phone penetration, Nepal presents a unique opportunity for businesses and investors to enter the market and drive innovation and growth in the region.

Free Platforms To Learn Web Technologies in 2022

learn web development for free in 2022
learn web development for free in 2022

Some of the most in-demand skills in today’s work market are web technology. There are several free online platforms that can help you achieve your goals, whether you are a beginner trying to start a career in web development or an experienced developer looking to extend your skills. In this article, we’ll talk about the top free resources for learning web technologies in 2022.

  1. HTML – The greatest location to start learning HTML is at You may learn HTML step-by-step using the wide array of lessons and activities it offers. The platform’s user-friendly interface makes it enjoyable and fascinating to learn HTML.
  2. CSS – The website is an excellent resource for learning CSS. The website offers comprehensive CSS tutorials that cover the newest CSS capabilities as well as industry best practices. A sizable collection of code samples and snippets is also available, which you can utilize to hone your CSS abilities.
  3. JavaScript – The extensive site covers every facet of JavaScript, including its background, grammar, and uses. You may learn JavaScript from scratch using the platform’s in-depth tutorials and activities.
  4. React.js – The official website for React.js, one of the most widely used JavaScript libraries for creating user interfaces, is The toolkit offers a thorough introduction to React.js, complete with tutorials, examples, and API references. A sizable selection of tools and materials are also available to assist you in creating your first React.js application.
  5. API – RapidAPI is a thorough platform that addresses every facet of APIs. You can learn how to create, test, and use APIs using the platform’s tutorials, examples, and tools. A sizable array of APIs is also available for you to use to hone your skills.
  6. Python – is a thorough website that covers every facet of Python. You may learn Python from scratch using the platform’s lessons, examples, and exercises. This platform contains something for everyone, whether you are a novice or an expert Python programmer.
  7. SQL – All facets of SQL are covered by the complete platform at The platform offers lessons, real-world examples, and practice problems to assist you in learning SQL from scratch. Also, a sizable collection of SQL snippets and examples can be found that you can utilize to hone your SQL abilities.
  8. React – The comprehensive platform covers every facet of React. The site offers lessons, real-world examples, and practice tasks to assist you in learning React from scratch. Our platform contains something for everyone, whether you are a novice or an expert React developer.
  9. NodeJS – The official website for NodeJS, one of the most widely used JavaScript frameworks for developing server-side applications, is The toolkit offers a thorough introduction to NodeJS, complete with tutorials, examples, and API references. A sizable selection of tools and resources are also available to assist you in creating your first NodeJS application.
  10. UI/UX – The comprehensive platform covers every facet of UI/UX design. The platform offers tutorials, samples, and exercises that will teach you how to create user interfaces that are both aesthetically beautiful and user-friendly. Our platform includes something for everyone, whether you are a new or seasoned UI/UX designer.
  11. Algorithms – The comprehensive portal covers every facet of algorithms. You may learn how to utilize and build algorithms using the platform’s tutorials, examples, and exercises. Also, a sizable number of algorithm snippets and examples can be found that you can use to hone your abilities. This platform includes something for everyone, regardless of your level of programming knowledge.
  12. Web3 – The comprehensive platform covers every facet of Web3, the decentralized web. You may learn how to create, test, and use decentralized applications with the aid of the platform, which also offers tutorials, examples, and exercises. A sizable selection of tools and resources are also available to assist you in starting to develop Web3 apps.
  13. Blockchain – The comprehensive platform explores every facet of blockchain, including its background, guiding principles, and potential uses. You may learn how to create decentralized applications by using the platform’s tutorials, examples, and exercises. This platform has enough to offer everyone, from novices to seasoned blockchain developers.

These are a few free online resources that will enable you to completely free learn web technology in 2022. These platforms have something for everyone, whether you are a novice or an experienced developer. Hence, if you want to improve your skills or launch a career in web development, start investigating these platforms right away and start moving in the right direction.

Happy Learning!

The Power of Meritocracy, Pragmatism, and Honesty (MPH) – Singapore’s Secret

Welcome to, where we delve into captivating stories that illuminate the transformative power of data and explore the secrets behind successful nations. Today, we embark on a fascinating journey into the realm of national development, as we uncover the remarkable story of Singapore’s MPH Formula – Meritocracy, Pragmatism, and Honesty. Join me, Hem Sagar Pokhrel, as we unlock the insights behind this powerful formula and discover how it can inspire and shape the future of our very own Nepal. Get ready to be inspired, informed, and motivated as we unravel the essence of this incredible formula and its potential to ignite a new era of progress and prosperity. So, grab a cup of tea, sit back, and let’s dive into this captivating exploration of meritocracy, pragmatism, and honesty, and its relevance for our beloved nation, Nepal.

What sets Singapore apart from other nations is its remarkable journey toward success amidst complex challenges and competing interests. The MPH Formula, which stands for Meritocracy, Pragmatism, and Honesty, is the backbone of this journey, enabling Singapore to successfully transform from a small and resource-poor island to a flourishing global hub. This blog post will delve into the significance of the MPH Formula and how its three pillars have shaped Singapore’s exceptional path toward success.

Meritocracy: A Fair System that Rewards Talent and Effort

Singapore’s triumphant model is rooted in meritocracy or the belief that one’s abilities and accomplishments determine their future, not their birth or social status. Unlike many other societies, this ideology provides equal chances for success to all, regardless of their background. By encouraging competition and excellence, Singapore’s system inspires individuals to reach their full potential, with the promise of recognition and reward for their hard work. This unparalleled approach has allowed the country to fully utilize its human capital and drive progress, tapping into the remarkable abilities of its people.

Pragmatism: Adaptability and Flexibility in the Face of Change

The pragmatic approach to decision-making and problem-solving that has always been a high focus is what makes Singapore such a success story among other countries’ development models. The nation’s authorities stress the need of making sensible decisions that will benefit the majority of its people. The government’s capacity to quickly adjust to conditions altering due to economic upheavals, technical developments, or shifting global dynamics is an example of this pragmatic approach. In a world that is constantly changing, Singapore’s ability to adapt and seize chances has been crucial to its progress and allowed it to stay ahead of the curve.

Honesty: A Foundation of Trust and Integrity

Another important part of the MPH formula is that Singaporean society places a high value on honesty and integrity. Honesty is recognized as a crucial characteristic that supports the advancement of the country by both the government and its population. Because of its dedication to openness and accountability, Singapore has developed a culture of trust where people and institutions can rely on one another. This culture of integrity has helped to create a setting that is favorable to investment, collaboration across borders, and innovation. Additionally, it has helped Singapore maintain its standing as one of the world’s least corrupt nations. Singapore’s growth and development have been aided by the international business, talent, and investment it has attracted by keeping the highest standards of ethics.

Meritocracy, Pragmatism, and Honesty, or the MPH Formula, are the cornerstones of Singapore’s success story. Singapore guarantees that skill and hard work are properly acknowledged and rewarded by embracing meritocracy, allowing people to realize their full potential. The nation can stay ahead in a fast-paced world because to pragmatism, which gives it the ability to quickly adjust and respond to changing circumstances. Integrity and honesty have created a foundation of trust that has drawn in international partners and fostered an environment that promotes development and innovation. Nevertheless, Singapore’s journey is still guided by the virtues of meritocracy, pragmatism, and honesty, which encourages other developing countries like Nepal to take note of its achievements and apply these virtues to their own situations.

No discussion about Singapore’s success and the MPH Formula would be complete without acknowledging the pivotal role played by the nation’s founding father, Lee Kuan Yew. Lee Kuan Yew, with his visionary leadership and unwavering commitment to his people, laid the groundwork for Singapore’s transformation into a global powerhouse. His strategic vision and relentless pursuit of excellence were instrumental in implementing the principles of meritocracy, pragmatism, and honesty that became the bedrock of Singapore’s development. Lee Kuan Yew’s bold and forward-thinking policies shaped Singapore’s economic landscape, attracting foreign investments, promoting education, and cultivating a culture of innovation. His unwavering dedication to good governance, integrity, and building strong institutions set Singapore on a trajectory of sustained growth and prosperity. Lee Kuan Yew’s legacy serves as an enduring inspiration not only for Singapore but for nations around the world, including Nepal, as we explore ways to apply the MPH Formula to our own context and unlock our nation’s true potential.

As Nepal looks to forge its own path toward development, it can draw inspiration from Singapore’s MPH Formula – Meritocracy, Pragmatism, and Honesty. By embracing meritocracy, Nepal can create a system that rewards talent and hard work, unlocking the potential of its people. Adopting a pragmatic approach will enable Nepal to adapt to changing circumstances, seize opportunities, and address its unique challenges effectively. Upholding honesty and integrity as fundamental values will lay a strong foundation of trust, attracting investments, fostering innovation, and promoting transparency in governance. While Nepal may face its own set of obstacles and context-specific considerations, the principles embedded in the MPH Formula can serve as guiding principles for a successful and sustainable development journey, empowering Nepal to create a prosperous and inclusive future for its citizens.

Microsoft’s Xiaoice vs Google’s Meena

Two of the most advanced conversational AI models created by these tech titans are Microsoft’s Xiaoice and Google’s Meena. These artificial intelligence (AI) systems can comprehend, process, and produce natural language text while simulating conversations with users that are similar to those of a human. Both Xiaoice and Meena have outstanding conversational performances thanks to their training on massive datasets of human talks. The specifics of these models, including their algorithms, capabilities, training datasets, development APIs, language support, and other information, will be covered in more detail in this article.


Microsoft’s Xiaoice is an AI-driven conversational chatbot that was created. It was initially introduced in China in 2014, and since then, it has spread to other nations. Xiaoice can provide responses that are identical to those of a human since it has been taught using vast amounts of conversational data from social media sites like WeChat. To comprehend user input and produce responses, it combines deep learning algorithms with natural language processing (NLP) strategies. As part of its “personality” concept, Xiaoice can modify its responses in reaction to the user’s emotional condition.

Meena is a conversational chatbot powered by AI that was created by Google. It was first released in 2020 and is made to resemble a person more than earlier chatbots. Meena’s main focus is on comprehending the context of a conversation and coming up with meaningful, interesting responses. Meena is highly suited for things like customer assistance and social interactions because it can handle lengthy chats.

Algorithm used

Recurrent neural network (RNN) is a deep learning method that is used by Xiaoice to produce answers. The ability to process sequences of input data makes RNNs an excellent choice for NLP applications like dialogue production. Sequence-to-sequence learning, which involves feeding the model pairings of input-output sequences, is the method used to train Xiaoice’s RNN. This enables Xiaoice to pick up on the recurring patterns and structures of human discourse and produce fluent, contextually appropriate responses.

Meena employs a “Transformer” neural network architecture, a kind of deep learning algorithm that was created by Google in 2017. Conversation generation and machine translation are examples of sequence-to-sequence learning tasks that can be handled by the Transformer architecture. Meena’s Transformer is trained through a method known as “retrieval-augmented generation,” which entails extracting pertinent data from a substantial knowledge base and utilizing it to produce contextually pertinent responses.

Abilities: What Xiaoice and Meena can do?

Xiaoice has the ability to hold natural language conversations with users about a variety of subjects, such as the weather, sports, entertainment, and interpersonal relationships. It has been used to assist individuals in coping with depression and other mental health difficulties and can also offer users emotional support. Xiaoice is capable of comprehending various accents and dialects, and it can even provide responses in various languages.

Meena is capable of engaging in long-form conversations with users and can handle a wide range of themes. It is intended to comprehend the context of a discussion and produce appropriate and interesting responses. Meena may also recognize the user’s emotional condition and modify its replies accordingly. Meena’s capacity to provide imaginative and open-ended responses is one of its main advantages, making it ideal for social situations and other conversational tasks.

Training Datasets

Massive volumes of conversational data from social media sites like WeChat were used to train the Xiaoice system. Voice and text-based dialogues are also included in the training data, giving the model access to a variety of inputs.

The “Meena Dataset,” a sizable collection of human conversations, on which Meena was trained, consists of more than 340 million discussion threads and over 40 billion words. The dataset was gathered from a number of places, including chat logs, internet forums, and social networking sites.

Development APIs

To incorporate Xiaoice into applications, Microsoft provides an API to developers. With Xiaoice’s natural language processing capabilities and the Xiaoice API, developers may create unique conversational experiences. C#, Java, Python, and Node.js are just a few of the programming languages that are supported by the API.

Meena does not yet have an official API from Google, but the model is accessible to developers via the TensorFlow library, an established open-source machine learning framework. TensorFlow provides a comprehensive range of tools and resources for constructing and training AI models, including tools for natural language processing and conversational AI.

Language Support

With intentions to add more languages in the future, Xiaoice presently supports Chinese, Japanese, and English.

Meena is able to comprehend and respond in a variety of languages, including Hindi, French, German, Spanish, and more.

Meena and Xiaoice are both outstanding conversational AI models, but there are some significant variations between them in terms of their techniques and capabilities. With the help of its “personality” and recurrent neural network, Xiaoice can adapt its replies to the user’s emotional state. Meena, in contrast, employs a transformer architecture and focuses on comprehending the context of a discussion in order to produce pertinent and interesting responses. Meena has a broad comprehension of language and conversation because it has been trained on a vast dataset of human talks and can handle long-form dialogues.

Modern conversational AI models like Microsoft’s Xiaoice and Google’s Meena have achieved outstanding results in terms of their capacity for natural language understanding and conversation production. The models were created to imitate human-like talks with users and were trained on vast datasets of human conversations. They both represent significant developments in the field of conversational AI and have the potential to fundamentally alter how we engage with technology, despite some differences in their methods and capabilities.

Free photo editing apps / image editing sites in 2022
With Magiceraser, you can remove unwanted things from images in seconds. You can upload an image, mark the bit you need to get removed and the platform will do the things necessary for you. You shall download the fixed up image. It’s absolutely free to use and no any signup is required just like or
You can remove background from your image 100% automatically in 5 seconds with one click with this website. It is powered with clever AI engine. If you want to make a background of your image transparent (PNG) or even add a white background to a photo with
If you’re searching for powerful online photo editor then Photopea is the best amongst all in market. You can use this platform to edit files of various formats that includes but PSD, RAW, JPG, PNG, XD, AI, SKETCH, and PDF etc.
Another on the list is Tinywow which is a platform that provides blemd of almost all tools in one place. With this platform, you can perform almost all the tasks listed above in our list. Some of them are:
If you’re a wannabe photographer and want to learn new tips, this platform is absolutely for you. PetaPixel publishes articles on a variety of topics across different categories, ranging from the mechanics of how cameras work to the latest technologies taking the world by storm. The goal of these articles is to introduce, teach, explain, and inspire readers. You can also find news and trends related to the photography world on the site. Also, this fantabulous platform offers series of tutorials on photography genre under

E-Sewa vs FonePay – Difference between PSP and PSO

Though both platforms named E-Sewa and FonePay are operated and controlled by the same company called F1 Soft, the purpose of these two applications is different.

Firstly you need to understand the concept of Payment Service Provider(PSP) and Payment Service Operators(PSO). Payment Service Operator(PSO) is the platform that acts as an intermediary to settle all the financial transactions of PSP who are using their network for the purpose of fund settlement and debit-credit routing related activities. PSO are platforms where Financial institutions such as banks, financial institutions, and payment service providers etc. can interlink for clearing and settlement of transactions. 

Fonepay is a digital payment processor that connects consumers, banks and merchants in an interoperable network to facilitate mobile/digital payments. According to F1 Soft, It is Nepal’s first mobile payment network to be licensed by the central bank as a Payment Service Operator (PSO).

Fonepay can be considered as a payment gateway like ConnectIPS which helps in connecting banks, consumers and merchants for settlement of their payments. FonePay allows various modes of online payment like B2B, B2C, C2B, C2C possible with all in one platform. Majority of  digital wallets used by Banks in Nepal rely on fonepay as F1 Soft is the dominant player in banking and online financial settlements in Nepal for a long time. Recently, we can see the emergence of other platforms like ConnectIPS.

On the other hand, A payment service provider is a third-party company that assists businesses to accept a wide range of online payment methods, such as online banking, credit cards, debit cards, e-wallets, cash cards, and more. They’re peer-to-peer platforms that ensure customers’ transactions make it from point A to point B, safely and securely.Renowned payment apps like Khalti and Esewa are PSPs. 

Timestamp ordering concurrency control technique – An introduction

A concurrency management method called timestamp ordering employs timestamps to arrange transactions and guarantee serializability. Each transaction is given a distinct timestamp when it is initiated, which is how it operates. When the transaction is finished being executed, the timestamp is used to rank it in relation to other transactions.

This is an illustration of how timestamp ordering functions:

  1. Transaction 1 begins, and a timestamp of 1 is put on it.
  2. Transaction 2 begins, and its timestamp is set to 2.
  3. Transaction 3 begins, and its timestamp is set to 3.
  4. Data that was written by Transaction 1 is read by Transaction 2.
  5. New data is written in transaction 1.
  6. The information that Transaction 1 wrote is read by Transaction 3.

The transactions in this example are carried out in the following succession: 1, 2, 3. This is due to the fact that the timestamps attached to each transaction show the chronological sequence in which they were initiated.

Here is a timestamp ordering algorithm:

  1. Give each transaction a special timestamp as soon as it begins.
  2. Check the timestamp of a transaction against the timestamps of other transactions that have accessed the same data when it tries to read or write data.
  3. Wait for other transactions to finish if the transaction’s timestamp is older than those of other transactions.
  4. Allow the transaction to execute if its timestamp is more recent than those of other transactions.
  5. Use the transaction’s timestamp to rank it in relation to other transactions after it has completed.

Remote Jobs Platforms to Work From Home

Since the global pandemic, working remotely has grown in popularity, and more businesses are now willing to hire remote workers. As a result, there are now several platforms for remote employment that link job seekers with companies looking for remote workers. In this article, we’ll examine some of the most well-known websites for remote employment, such as,,, and many others, and give a summary of their features and advantages. These platforms can assist you in finding your next remote employment opportunity, regardless of your level of expertise.

  1. is a platform that links independent contractors with organizations and people wishing to hire them for a range of activities and projects. Web development, programming, design, and writing are just a few of the many categories it covers. It also enables freelancers to bid on jobs and collaborate with clients from across the globe. Visit this link to get started.
  2. Another website that links independent contractors with clients is Upwork. It provides a wide range of categories, including web development, programming, design, and writing. It also provides a range of tools to facilitate collaboration, communication, and project management between freelancers and customers. Visit this link to get started.
  3. A platform called RemoteOK specializes only in remote employment opportunities. Job searchers can use it to search a variety of job categories, including web development, programming, design, and customer service, and to filter job ads based on factors like geography and experience level. Visit this link to get started.
  4. A program called WorkingNomads connects remote employees and digital nomads with employment possibilities. Job seekers can filter job listings by region, experience level, and other factors. They provide a wide range of employment categories, such as web development, programming, design, and customer support. Visit this link to get started.
  5. Companies can advertise their remote jobs and teams on the platform Showwcase in order to entice top talent from across the world. Job seekers can use Showwcase to search for remote employment possibilities by region, industry, and firm size. Visit this link to get started.
  6. Crossover: Crossover is a platform that only focuses on remote employment options for software engineers; it employs a stringent hiring procedure to find the best remote employment opportunities for each candidate.
  7. Arc: Arc is a platform that links remote employees with employment opportunities and services to help them flourish in a remote work environment. It offers a wide range of job categories, including web development, programming, design, and customer care.
  8. The platform enables job seekers to explore for remote employment possibilities by location, industry, and firm size. It also provides a number of tools for remote workers and businesses wishing to hire remote workers.
  9. Remotive is a platform that provides a range of services for remote employees. These resources include a job board, a community forum, and a newsletter. It also enables job seekers to look for remote job opportunities by area, industry, and firm size.
  10. Skipthedrive: The platform Skipthedrive enables job searchers to look for remote employment possibilities by location, industry, and firm size. It also provides a variety of remote job options and information for remote workers.
  11. Jobspresso: This website enables job seekers to look for remote employment possibilities by location, industry, and firm size. It also provides a variety of remote job opportunities and information for remote workers.
  12. EuropeRemotely: It offers a wide range of job categories, such as web development, programming, design, and customer service, and allows job seekers to filter job listings by region, experience level, and other criteria. Remotely is a platform that concentrates solely on remote job prospects for workers in Europe.
  13. Outsourcely: It offers a wide range of categories, including web development, programming, design, and writing, and allows remote workers to bid on projects and work with clients from all over the world. Outsourcely is a platform that connects businesses and individuals with remote workers for various projects and tasks.
  14. PowerToFly: is a platform that links women in technology with employment opportunities and tools to support their professional success. Job searchers can use it to search a variety of job categories, including web development, programming, design, and customer service, and to filter job ads based on factors like geography and experience level.
  15. In order to assist them flourish in a remote work environment, RemoteGlobal is a platform that connects remote workers with job opportunities and services. Job searchers can use it to search a variety of job categories, including web development, programming, design, and customer service, and to filter job ads based on factors like geography and experience level.
  16. To help remote developers thrive in their professions, Devsnap is a platform that connects them with job opportunities and resources. Job searchers can use it to search a variety of job categories, including web development, programming, design, and customer service, and to filter job ads based on factors like geography and experience level.
  17. A platform called Nodes connects remote developers with employment opportunities and resources to advance their careers. Job searchers can use it to search a variety of job categories, including web development, programming, design, and customer service, and to filter job ads based on factors like geography and experience level.
  18. JustRemote is a site that specializes solely in remote employment opportunities. Job searchers can use it to search a variety of job categories, including web development, programming, design, and customer service, and to filter job ads based on factors like geography and experience level.
  19. Virtual Vocations: A platform that specializes in remote employment prospects for professionals in a range of industries and job functions is called Virtual Vocations. Job searchers can use it to search a variety of job categories, including web development, programming, design, and customer service, and to filter job ads based on factors like geography and experience level.
  20. Pangian is a platform that links remote employees with employment opportunities and tools to support their success in a remote working setting. Job searchers can use it to search a variety of job categories, including web development, programming, design, and customer service, and to filter job ads based on factors like geography and experience level.
  21. Remotive is a platform that gives remote employees access to a range of tools, such as a job board, a community forum, and a newsletter. Additionally, it enables job seekers to look for remote employment opportunities by region, sector, and size of the organization.
  22. To help remote workers succeed in a remote work environment, PicJobs is a platform that connects them with job opportunities and tools. Job searchers can use it to search a variety of job categories, including web development, programming, design, and customer service, and to filter job ads based on factors like geography and experience level.
  23. To help remote workers succeed in a remote work environment, RemoteHunt is a platform that connects them with job opportunities and tools. Job searchers can use it to search a variety of job categories, including web development, programming, design, and customer service, and to filter job ads based on factors like geography and experience level.
  24. is a platform that links remote employees with employment opportunities and tools to support their success in a remote work setting. Job searchers can use it to search a variety of job categories, including web development, programming, design, and customer service, and to filter job ads based on factors like geography and experience level.
  25. Flexjobs is a platform that provides professionals in a wide range of industries and job functions with a wide selection of remote and flexible job possibilities. Job searchers can use it to search a variety of job categories, including web development, programming, design, and customer service, and to filter job ads based on factors like geography and experience level. Additionally, it offers a membership-based structure that gives job seekers access to more employment options and tools. Because it personally screens and verifies each job listing before it is posted, Flexjobs is particularly well-known for providing high-quality and legitimate employment options.

Two-phase locking technique in DBMS concurrency control – An Introduction

Two-phase locking is a concurrency control technique used in database management systems (DBMS) to ensure the serializability of transactions. Serializability is the property that ensures that the concurrent execution of transactions produces the same result as if the transactions were executed one at a time.

Two-phase locking is based on the idea of acquiring locks on data items before reading or modifying them, and releasing locks after the data has been read or modified. There are two phases in the two-phase locking protocol:

  1. Growing phase: During this phase, a transaction can acquire locks on data items, but cannot release any locks.
  2. Shrinking phase: During this phase, a transaction can release locks, but cannot acquire any new locks.

Here is an example of how two-phase locking works:

  • Transaction 1 begins and acquires a lock on data item D1.
  • Transaction 2 begins and tries to acquire a lock on D1, but is blocked because Transaction 1 has a lock on D1.
  • Transaction 1 releases its lock on D1 and acquires a lock on D2.
  • Transaction 2 acquires the lock on D1 and begins executing.

In this example, Transaction 2 is executed after Transaction 1, even though they were running concurrently. This ensures that the integrity of the database is preserved as if the transactions were executed one at a time.

Here is an algorithm for two-phase locking:

  1. Begin the transaction and enter the growing phase.
  2. Acquire locks on any data items that need to be accessed or modified.
  3. Execute the transaction.
  4. Release all locks and enter the shrinking phase.
  5. Commit the transaction.

Two-phase locking is a simple and effective concurrency control technique, but it can suffer from performance issues due to lock contention (when multiple transactions are trying to acquire the same lock).

Serializable schedule in DBMS transaction processing

In a database management system (DBMS), a serializable schedule is a way of executing concurrent transactions in a way that produces the same result as if the transactions were executed serially (one after the other). In other words, a serializable schedule ensures that the concurrent execution of transactions preserves the integrity of the database, as if the transactions were executed one at a time.

A serializable schedule is achieved through the use of locks, which are used to prevent multiple transactions from accessing and modifying the same data simultaneously. When a transaction acquires a lock on a piece of data, no other transaction can access or modify that data until the lock is released. This ensures that the transactions are executed in a serial fashion, even though they are running concurrently.

Here is an example of how a serializable schedule might work in a DBMS:

  • Transaction 1 begins and acquires a lock on data D.
  • Transaction 2 begins and tries to acquire a lock on data D, but is blocked because Transaction 1 has a lock on D.
  • Transaction 1 completes and releases the lock on D.
  • Transaction 2 acquires the lock on D and begins executing.

In this example, Transaction 2 is executed after Transaction 1, even though they were running concurrently. This ensures that the integrity of the database is preserved, as if the transactions were executed one at a time.

Search Engines to track for Cybersecurity Research

Hi everyone, welcome to yet another article on cyber security at DataSagar. Today, I’m trying to list as many platforms as possible for cybersecurity researchers. The cybersecurity search engines listed below can be helpful in gathering threat intelligence, identifying vulnerabilities and attack surfaces, and exploring various data sources related to cybersecurity. Each website offers unique features and can help you achieve different goals, depending on your specific needs.

DeHashed (
Access to numerous leaked credentials, such as passwords, usernames, email addresses, and more, is made possible through the search engine DeHashed. It enables users to look up their own data and receive an in-depth report on the data that is readily accessible to the general public. DeHashed is helpful for both individuals who wish to safeguard themselves against potential data breaches and for companies who want to determine whether the information of their employees is secure.

SecurityTrails (
The cybersecurity search engine SecurityTrails offers a big DNS data collection. It enables users to carry out a wide range of DNS searches, such as reverse DNS lookups, domain IP history, DNS record kinds, and a lot more. Network administrators and security experts that require comprehensive information on the domain name system settings of a website can benefit from SecurityTrails.

DorkSearch (DorkSearch – Speed up your Google Dorking)
Search engine DorkSearch provides quick Google dorking services. By utilizing complex search operators, it enables users to look for hidden content on websites, which can assist them in locating potential security flaws. Hackers, security researchers, and penetration testers who need to locate private information can find it with the help of DorkSearch.

ExploitDB (
An archive of many exploits and vulnerabilities is called ExploitDB. It includes exploit code and tools to help with penetration testing, information on how to exploit various software and operating systems, and both. ExploitDB is helpful for security professionals who need to test their own systems for potential flaws and who want to learn about the most recent exploits and vulnerabilities.

ZoomEye (
ZoomEye is a search engine that allows users to gather information about targets. It can search for various Internet of Things (IoT) devices, servers, websites, and more. ZoomEye is useful for security researchers, penetration testers, and hackers who need to gather information about a specific target to identify potential security vulnerabilities.

Pulsedive (
Pulsedive is a search engine that offers a platform to search for threat intelligence. It collects and analyzes data from various sources, including social media, forums, dark web, and more. Pulsedive is useful for security professionals who want to stay up-to-date on the latest threats and vulnerabilities and for those who need to perform threat intelligence analysis.

GrayHatWarfare (
GrayHatWarfare is a search engine that allows users to search for public Amazon S3 buckets. It offers access to various public data that is stored in these buckets. GrayHatWarfare is useful for security researchers, penetration testers, and hackers who need to find sensitive data that is inadvertently exposed on the internet.

PolySwarm (
PolySwarm is a platform that allows users to scan files and URLs for threats. It uses various artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) technologies to detect malware and other malicious content. PolySwarm is useful for security professionals who need to scan files and URLs for potential threats.

Fofa (
Fofa is a search engine that offers various threat intelligence services. It can search for various Internet-connected devices, services, and software, and provides detailed information about them. Fofa is useful for security professionals who want to gather intelligence on potential targets and for those who need to perform reconnaissance on a specific target. For some reason, I wasn’t able to access the website of fofa so including its company’s GitHub link for your reference.

LeakIX (
LeakIX is a search engine that allows users to search for publicly indexed information. It collects data from various sources, including open databases, web archives, and more. LeakIX is useful for security researchers who need to find information that is publicly available on the internet.

DNSDumpster (
DNSDumpster is a free web-based tool that provides a quick and easy way to search for DNS records. It allows you to identify subdomains, IP addresses, mail servers, and other information related to a specific domain. This information can be useful for finding potential vulnerabilities and performing reconnaissance.

FullHunt (
FullHunt is a search engine that helps you discover and monitor attack surfaces. It allows you to search for subdomains, IP addresses, and other assets related to a specific domain. The tool can also be used to monitor changes to a domain’s attack surface over time.

AlienVault (
AlienVault is a cybersecurity platform that provides extensive threat intelligence feeds. It collects data from a wide range of sources, including its own network of sensors, open-source intelligence, and community contributions. The platform provides real-time threat intelligence and security insights to help organizations protect against cyber threats.

ONYPHE is a platform that collects and analyzes cyber threat intelligence data. It provides access to a large database of network data, including IP addresses, domains, and other information related to cybersecurity threats. The platform also offers advanced search capabilities and analytics tools to help organizations identify and mitigate threats.

Grep App (
Grep App is a search engine that allows you to search across a half million Git repositories. It provides a quick and easy way to search for code, configurations, and other sensitive information that may have been inadvertently exposed in Git repositories.

URL Scan (
URL Scan is a free service that allows you to scan and analyze websites. It provides information about a website’s security, including its SSL/TLS certificate, server headers, and potential vulnerabilities. The tool can also be used to identify phishing and malware websites.

Vulners (
Vulners is a search engine that allows you to search for vulnerabilities in a large database. The platform provides access to a wide range of security information, including CVEs, exploits, and security advisories. It also offers a set of tools for analyzing and mitigating security threats.

WayBackMachine (
WayBackMachine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web. It provides access to over 25 years of archived web pages, including those that may have been deleted or removed from the internet. The platform can be a valuable tool for conducting historical research and forensic investigations.

Shodan (
Shodan is a search engine that allows you to search for devices connected to the internet. It provides information about a device’s operating system, software, and other details that can be useful for identifying vulnerabilities and conducting reconnaissance. Shodan is often used by researchers and hackers to discover vulnerable devices and systems.

Netlas (
Netlas is a platform that allows you to search and monitor internet-connected assets. It provides information about domains, IP addresses, and other assets that may be associated with a specific organization or individual. The platform also offers a set of tools for identifying vulnerabilities and mitigating threats.

CRT sh (
CRT sh is a website that allows users to search for SSL/TLS certificates that have been logged by Certificate Transparency (CT) logs. Users can search by domain name, certificate authority, and other criteria to find information about certificates issued for specific domains. This can be useful for identifying potential security issues, such as when a certificate is issued for a domain that is not owned by the entity requesting the certificate.

Wigle (
Wigle is a database of wireless networks that provides statistics on wireless network usage around the world. Users can search for networks by geographic location, SSID, MAC address, and other criteria. Wigle also provides tools for analyzing the data, such as heat maps and signal strength graphs. While Wigle can be used for legitimate purposes, such as network planning and research, it can also be used for nefarious purposes, such as identifying vulnerable networks to exploit.

PublicWWW (
PublicWWW is a search engine that allows users to search for websites by the code contained in their HTML, CSS, and JavaScript files. This can be useful for marketing and affiliate marketing research, as well as for identifying websites that may contain vulnerabilities or other security issues. PublicWWW provides advanced search options, such as the ability to search for specific keywords or code patterns.

Binary Edge (
Binary Edge is a platform that scans the internet for threat intelligence. It provides tools for identifying internet-connected assets, such as IP addresses, domains, and SSL/TLS certificates, as well as for identifying vulnerabilities and other security issues. Binary Edge also provides an API for integrating its data into other tools and platforms.

GreyNoise (
GreyNoise is a search engine that allows users to search for devices connected to the internet that are generating noise or scanning activity. This can be useful for identifying potential threats, such as when a device is scanning for vulnerable systems to exploit. GreyNoise provides various search filters, such as geographic location and device type, to help users narrow their searches.

Hunter (
Hunter is a search engine that allows users to search for email addresses belonging to a specific domain or company. It can also be used to verify the validity of email addresses and to find email addresses associated with specific individuals. While Hunter can be used for legitimate purposes, such as email marketing, it can also be used for phishing and other nefarious activities.

Censys (
Censys is a platform for assessing the attack surface of internet-connected devices. It provides tools for identifying open ports, certificates, and other information about devices connected to the internet. Censys also provides an API for integrating its data into other tools and platforms.

IntelligenceX (
IntelligenceX is a search engine that allows users to search Tor, I2P, data leaks, domains, and emails. It provides tools for identifying and analyzing threat intelligence data, such as malware samples, phishing sites, and compromised credentials. IntelligenceX also provides an API for integrating its data into other tools and platforms.

Packet Storm Security (
Packet Storm Security is a website that provides information about the latest vulnerabilities and exploits. It includes a database of vulnerability advisories, exploits, and other security-related information. Users can browse the database by category or search for specific vulnerabilities or exploits.

SearchCode (
SearchCode is a search engine that allows users to search 75 billion lines of code from 40 million projects. It can be used for legitimate purposes, such as finding code snippets for programming projects or researching open-source software, as well as for security-related purposes such as identifying vulnerabilities in software.

Thanks for getting up to the end of this article. I hope you tried and enjoyed this amazing list of search engines powered by various search algorithms.

Happy Learning!

Essential Skills to Excel as a Power BI Developer: Beyond DAX and Power Query

Welcome to DataSagar, your ultimate destination for staying updated with the latest technology trends and insights. Today, we’re diving into the world of Power BI development, exploring the essential skills that go beyond mastering DAX and Power Query. As a Power BI developer, your expertise goes beyond formulas and queries; it extends into the realm of data modeling and database management. Let’s explore these crucial skills that can propel your career to new heights.

Mastering Data Modeling and Database Skills

Data modeling and database management are the cornerstones of effective Power BI solutions. To become an advanced Power BI developer, it’s imperative to have a strong grasp of these concepts. Here’s a breakdown of the skills you need to focus on:

Understanding STAR Schema, Dimension, and Fact

Before you dive into the intricacies of Power BI development, make sure you have a solid understanding of the basics. The STAR schema is a fundamental concept in data modeling. It involves creating dimension tables (containing attributes) and a central fact table (containing measures) connected by relationships. These relationships form the basis of building effective solutions.

To get started, check out this comprehensive guide on STAR schema, dimensions, and facts: STAR Schema, Dimension / Fact Basics.

Handling Unique Dimension Tables

Dimension tables might seem static, but they can change over time. Understanding how to handle changes in dimension tables is crucial for designing a robust data model. Familiarize yourself with different types of slowly changing dimensions (Type 0, Type 1, Type 2) and their implications on your model’s design.

Delve into the world of unique dimension tables with this resource: Unique Dimension Tables – Slowly Changing Dimension. Additionally, explore special dimension tables like Degenerative or Junk Dimensions, which play unique roles in certain scenarios.

Navigating Unique Fact Tables

Fact tables come in various forms, each serving different purposes. It’s vital to understand the differences between additive, semi-additive, and non-additive facts. These distinctions influence how you aggregate and analyze data in your Power BI reports.

Dive deeper into fact tables with these resources:

Architecting Advanced Data Models

Once you’ve grasped the fundamental concepts, it’s time to put everything together to create robust solutions. This involves architecting advanced data models that efficiently handle complex scenarios. Learn how to integrate dimensions, facts, and relationships seamlessly to deliver actionable insights.

For a comprehensive exploration of advanced data modeling, check out this 3-part series on Advanced Data Modeling Series.

Staying Updated with Evolving Technologies

As technologies evolve, so does the landscape of data storage methods. Staying current with these changes is essential for staying relevant as a Power BI developer. Concepts like Fabric, Delta, and Data Lakehouses are gaining prominence.

Learning Resources to Get Started

To kickstart your journey toward becoming an advanced Power BI developer, here are some valuable learning resources:

Following is a list of best three books consistently receiving positive reviews for their depth of content, quality of instruction, and relevance to Power BI developers at various skill levels.

  1. “The Definitive Guide to DAX: Business intelligence for Microsoft Power BI, SQL Server Analysis Services, and Excel” by Marco Russo and Alberto Ferrari
    • This book is often hailed as the ultimate guide to DAX, providing deep insights into the language and its applications. The authors are well-respected experts in the field, and the book’s comprehensive coverage and clear explanations make it a must-read for anyone serious about mastering DAX.
  2. “Power Pivot and Power BI: The Excel User’s Guide to DAX, Power Query, Power BI & Power Pivot in Excel 2010-2016” by Rob Collie and Avi Singh
    • This book is highly regarded for its practical approach to teaching Power Pivot, DAX, and Power Query. It’s known for breaking down complex concepts into understandable, actionable steps, making it a favorite among both beginners and experienced users.
  3. “Analyzing Data with Power BI and Power Pivot for Excel” by Alberto Ferrari and Marco Russo
    • Alberto Ferrari and Marco Russo are prominent figures in the Power BI community, and this book is praised for its clear explanations of data modeling and analytics using Power BI and Power Pivot in Excel. Readers appreciate the book’s logical progression and real-world examples.

As a Power BI developer, your skill set extends far beyond writing DAX formulas and Power Queries. Data modeling, database management, and a deep understanding of schema, dimensions, and facts are essential for crafting powerful and insightful Power BI solutions. By mastering these skills and staying current with evolving technologies, you’ll be well-equipped to excel in your career and create impactful data visualizations that drive decision-making.

Stay tuned to DataSagar for more technology updates and insights that empower you on your tech journey. Happy Power BI developing!

Transaction Control in DBMS – An introduction with examples

A transaction in a database management system (DBMS) is a piece of work done on a database. Because a transaction is an atomic unit, it can either be completed entirely or not at all. Desirable properties of Transaction in DBMS are commonly known as ACID properties.

The process known as transaction control enables you to govern how transactions affect your database. It enables you to either roll back the changes made during a transaction in the event of an error or commit the changes made during a transaction to the database.

Here I present you some examples of how transaction control is used in a DBMS:

  1. Transferring money from one bank account to another:

You can think of this as a two-step process:

  • Step 1: Deduct the money from the source account
  • Step 2: Add the money to the destination account

To make sure that the accounts remain in a consistent state, you would want to roll back the transaction if either of these stages fails.

  1. Updating a customer’s address in a database:

Consider updating a database with a customer’s address. There may be numerous tables where the address needs to be updated (e.g., the “customers” table and the “orders” table). To keep the database in a consistent state if one of the updates fails, you would want to roll back the transaction.

  1. Printing a report:

Consider printing a report that requires data queries from several different tables. You may want to roll back the transaction if the query fails for any reason in order to prevent the report from being generated with inaccurate or missing data.

These are just a few instances of how a DBMS uses transaction control.

Happy Learning!

ACID Properties of Transaction – Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability

Transactions in a database management system (DBMS) include a number of characteristics that guarantee the consistency and integrity of the database. The following are the so-called ACID properties:

  1. Atomicity: This characteristic makes sure that a transaction is an atomic unit, which means that it is either entirely finished or not at all finished. All changes performed during a transaction are undone in the event of an error, and the database is restored to its initial state.
  2. Consistency: This characteristic makes sure a transaction leaves the database in a state that is consistent. The sum of all accounts must remain unchanged, for instance, if money is being transferred from one bank account to another.
  3. Isolation: This characteristic makes sure that the modifications performed by one transaction are separate from those made by other transactions. This is crucial because it stops transactions from interfering with one another and makes sure that each one is handled as if it were the only one.
  4. Durability: This characteristic guarantees that changes made by a transaction are permanent and cannot be undone in the event of a system failure after the transaction has been committed.

These characteristics are necessary for any DBMS to operate properly and aid in preserving the database’s consistency and integrity.

Masters in Data Science(MDS) Program at Tribhuvan University

Hello, fellow data enthusiasts! DataSagar here, your friendly neighborhood data educator and database tutor. Today, we’re diving into a fascinating development on the data science education front – the Master in Data Science (MDS) program offered by Tribhuvan University (TU) in Nepal.

As someone who’s passionate about data and its transformative power, I’m always on the lookout for educational initiatives that nurture the next generation of data professionals. TU’s MDS program piqued my interest, and I couldn’t resist delving deeper into it.

Unlocking the MDS Program at Tribhuvan University

Tribhuvan University’s MDS program is a testament to Nepal’s growing recognition of the importance of data science in today’s tech-driven world. This full-time, two-year program, offered by the School of Mathematical Sciences (SMS), is a significant step towards equipping students with the skills they need to excel in the field of data science.

What Makes TU’s MDS Program Stand Out?

Let’s explore the key aspects that make TU’s MDS program noteworthy:

1. A Comprehensive Curriculum: The program takes students through a journey of data science essentials, including programming, statistics, data analytics, machine learning, data visualization, and more. This robust curriculum ensures that graduates possess a well-rounded skill set that’s in high demand in the business, industry, and multinational companies.

2. Interdisciplinary Approach: TU’s MDS program is the first of its kind in the Institute of Science and Technology at the university. It’s designed to be interdisciplinary, meaning it draws knowledge from various fields to provide students with a holistic understanding of data science.

3. Real-World Application: The program focuses not only on theory but also on practical applications. Students get hands-on experience with projects, seminars, and internships, giving them the opportunity to apply what they’ve learned in real-world scenarios.

4. A Blend of Evaluation Methods: TU employs a balanced evaluation system comprising both internal and external assessments. This system ensures that students are not only knowledgeable but also capable of practical application.

Exploring the Course Structure

The MDS program is divided into four semesters, and here’s a sneak peek into the course structure:

First Semester:

  • Fundamentals of Data Science
  • Data Structure and Algorithms
  • Statistical Computing with R
  • Mathematics for Data Science
  • Elective Courses (Choose One)

Second Semester:

  • Programming with Python
  • Applied Machine Learning
  • Statistical Methods for Data Science
  • Multivariable Calculus for Data Science
  • Elective Courses (Choose One)

Third Semester:

  • Research Methodology
  • Advanced Data Mining
  • Techniques for Big Data
  • Elective Courses (Choose Two)

Fourth Semester:

  • Data Visualization
  • Capstone Project/Thesis
  • Elective Courses (Choose Two)

This well-structured program not only imparts essential technical skills but also encourages students to delve into specialized areas of interest through elective courses.

Who’s Eligible for the MDS Program?

To be eligible for TU’s MDS program, candidates must have a minimum of 15 years of formal education and meet specific criteria based on their academic background. This inclusivity allows a diverse range of students to embark on their data science journey.

Data Science Prospects in Nepal

Now, let’s talk about the exciting part: the potential impact of this program on Nepal’s technology industry and businesses. As data becomes the lifeblood of decision-making, data scientists are in high demand across various sectors. Here’s how TU’s MDS program can contribute:

1. Government Agencies: Data-driven decision-making can enhance governance, policy formulation, and public services.

2. Clinical Research Centers: Data analysis can revolutionize healthcare research, leading to better treatments and outcomes.

3. Banking Sector: Enhanced risk assessment, fraud detection, and customer insights can drive growth and stability.

4. Manufacturing Industry: Data can optimize production processes, reduce waste, and enhance efficiency.

5. Travel and Hospitality Sector: Data analytics can personalize customer experiences and streamline operations.

6. Healthcare Industry: From patient care to drug development, data science can lead to groundbreaking advancements.

7. Business Houses: In the corporate world, data scientists are instrumental in market analysis, customer segmentation, and strategic decision-making.

Now, you might be wondering, “Is it worth studying for a Master’s in Data Science in Nepal?” The answer is a resounding yes, and here’s why. Data science is not limited by geographical boundaries; it’s a global phenomenon. TU’s MDS program not only provides you with a high-quality education but also positions you to tap into the vast opportunities in Nepal and beyond. With the growing adoption of data-driven decision-making in various industries, the demand for skilled data scientists is on the rise, both locally and internationally. Moreover, studying in Nepal can be a unique experience, offering the chance to explore a rich cultural heritage while gaining cutting-edge data science expertise. So, if you have a passion for data and a desire to shape the future of technology and business in Nepal, pursuing an MDS degree at Tribhuvan University could be one of the best decisions you’ll ever make.

Tribhuvan University’s Master in Data Science program is a game-changer for Nepal’s tech industry and businesses. It empowers students with the skills needed to harness the power of data, solve complex problems, and drive innovation. As Nepal embarks on its data science journey, it’s exciting to witness the potential impact this program will have on the country’s technological landscape.

I’m keeping a close eye on the evolution of data science education globally, and TU’s MDS program is undoubtedly a significant step towards a data-driven Nepal. Stay tuned for more exciting updates on data, technology, and education right here on!

Thanks, and Have a Good Day!

Learning from Lord Shiva: Lessons for Technology Professionals on Maha Shivaratri

On the auspicious occasion of Maha Shivaratri, I Wish you Good Health and all the Happiness you deserve. May God Shiva bestow the Blessings of Energy, Courage, and Success to you and your family. Jay Pashupatinath!

I’m here with another blog post to highlight the learnings that everyone can learn from the personality of Lord Shiva. God Shiva is known for his diverse personality and names like “Devo ka Dev”, “Mahadev”, “Nilkanth”, “Shivaji”, “Maha Yogi” “Bholenath”, “Ardhanarishwar” and “Pashupatinath” etc. He is known as a destroyer of evil spirits and injustices. Some lessons that every technology fellow(programmer, designer, analyst, project manager, or whatever position they’re in) can learn from Shiva are listed below:

1. Tolerance and Self Control
Shiva is considered the optimum state of mind and the mind’s stability. Whatever situation we’re going through, we must control ourselves and think twice before action. Most of the time we become reactive instead of acting consciously. We should be able to handle our desires and addictions(if any) to win the battle. Focus is everything so you should keep your goal clear and your mind, as well as your heart, focused on it.

2. Research over Ignorance
Another thing you can learn from Shiva is to avoid ignorance as far as practicable. You might have seen “Ganga” flowing in Shiva’s hair which symbolizes the end of ignorance. Know the subject matter well before getting into it to be successful, be it in a project or any other task.

3. Desire, Obsession, and Destruction Theory
Unnecessary desires are the main reason behind obsessions. If your mind is thinking of an idea or there’s a thought that continually preoccupies or intrudes within, that may break your time schedules. It’s very important to stick with what’s important. The main thing must always be “The Main Thing”. Otherwise, it may lead you to a disastrous situation.

4. Respect Your Better Half
You may have seen lord Shiva’s images with half male(Shiva) and half female(Parvati). For this reason, he is also known as “Ardhanarishwar” – means half woman and half man. This symbolizes respect and cares for your counterpart. Every man should respect and care for women no matter what.

5. Materialistic Happiness is Temporary
Searching for happiness in the material world is not going to work in the long run. You need to find inner peace and a state of mind so that you can enjoy every moment happily. You can learn from Shiva’s outfit and appearance as well.

Maha Shivaratri can be considered a potent reminder of Lord Shiva’s teachings and qualities as the god of cosmic wisdom and enlightenment. His numerous influences on various facets of life are reflected in his diversified personality and naming patterns. One can gain a lot from Lord Shiva’s teachings as a technology expert, including tolerance and self-control, research over ignorance, want, obsession, and destruction theory, respect for your better half, and the fleeting nature of worldly satisfaction. We may improve ourselves and succeed in life by putting these teachings to work in both our personal and professional lives. On this auspicious occasion, let us seek Lord Shiva’s blessings and make an effort to aspire to his knowledge and teachings.

Happy Mahashivaratri!!!

The Growing Threat of Cybercrime in Nepal: Causes and Consequences

Globally, cybercrime is a growing threat, and Nepal is no different. Cybercrime has increased in frequency as the world becomes more digital, with disastrous results for people, corporations, and governments alike. This article will examine the problem of cybercrime in Nepal, covering the most prevalent forms of this crime, its effects, and some actual occurrences that show how it affects both individuals and society.

Types of Cybercrime in Nepal:

A wide range of criminal behaviors are included in the term “cybercrime,” which is used to describe any unlawful activity involving a computer or network. The following are the most typical forms of cybercrime in Nepal:

  1. Hacking is the act of gaining unauthorized access to computer systems or networks with the intent to steal sensitive data or interfere with business operations.
  2. Phishing is a sort of cybercrime that entails sending emails or messages that appear to be from a reliable source, like a bank or a government organization, in an effort to deceive recipients into submitting sensitive information or clicking on links that might infect their systems with malware.
  3. Identity theft is the theft of a person’s personal data, including name, address, and social security number, in order to engage in fraud or other unlawful acts.
  4. Malware is software that is intended to damage computer systems or networks, frequently by stealing confidential data, interfering with operations, or corrupting files.

Consequences of Cybercrime in Nepal:

Cybercrime in Nepal can have disastrous effects on both the victim and society at large. Financial losses, reputational damages, and in some circumstances even physical harm are possible outcomes of cybercrime. The following are some of the most important effects of cybercrime in Nepal:

  1. Financial losses: Both individuals and corporations can suffer large financial losses as a result of cybercrime. Large sums of money can occasionally be stolen from bank accounts or credit cards by cybercriminals. Businesses may also suffer financial losses as a result of operations being disrupted or reputational harm.
  2. Reputational harm: Both people and organizations’ reputations can be hurt by cybercrime. For instance, the reputation of the victim may suffer if personal information is stolen and made public.
  3. Physical injury: Cybercrime occasionally causes physical harm. For instance, serious harm could ensue if a hospital’s computer system is breached and patient information is stolen.

Real-Life Incidents of Cybercrime in Nepal:

The catastrophic effects of these crimes on people and society have been highlighted by the numerous cybercrime instances that have occurred in Nepal in recent years. Here are a few illustrations:

  1. A significant bank in Nepal had a hack in 2019 that resulted in the theft of millions of rupees. The hackers broke into the bank’s computer systems through phishing emails and stole money from customer accounts.
  2. Social media hacking: In 2020, the accounts of a well-known Nepali comedian were compromised, and the hackers released offensive information under his name. The comic was severely distressed by this, which hurt his reputation.
  3. Internet fraud: In 2021, a guy was detained in Nepal for his participation in a scam involving online fraud. The perpetrator has utilized phishing emails to defraud victims of their money and personal information.

These illegal actions are a big problem in Nepal and have far-reaching effects on both the individual and the larger society. Hacking, phishing, identity theft, and malware are the four most typical forms of cybercrime in Nepal. Cybercrime in Nepal has negative effects for the economy, reputation, and personal safety. The destructive effects of these crimes on people and society are highlighted by actual cybercrime instances in Nepal, underlining the need for increased awareness and cybersecurity precautions to guard against cybercrime.

Nepal’s Economic Diplomacy: Leveraging Trade, Investment, Tourism, and Overseas Employment

Hi everyone, welcome to DataSagar. Today, I would like to cover some crucial yet important facts and figures that every Nepali should be well aware of. In the meantime, some of you might be wondering what foreign diplomacy actually is.

When a nation uses diplomacy to advance its economic interests abroad and achieve its economic objectives, this practice can be referred to as economic diplomacy. It entails the use of diplomatic channels to negotiate economic deals, attract foreign investment, market travel/tourism, and strengthen international collaboration in such like infrastructure development and human resource management. Economic diplomacy, to put it simply, is a strategy used by nations to boost their economies and enhance the welfare of their populations.

As Nepal is well-known for both its burgeoning economy and its magnificent natural beauty. Nepal is a key actor in South Asia with a GDP of USD 33.6 billion and a GDP per capita of USD 1,191. Nepal has been actively participating in economic diplomacy, which is essential for fostering the country’s economic development. In light of international trade, foreign direct investment, tourism, government development assistance, and abroad employment, this article ought to examine Nepal’s economic diplomacy with a data-driven approach. Lets us begin with an idea of what our diplomacy is like from an economic perspective based on data, facts, and figures.

Foreign Trade:

Over the years, Nepal’s foreign trade has steadily increased. Nepal’s exports totaled NPR 1,41,124 million in 2020, compared to imports of NPR 15,39,837 million. About two-thirds of all trade between Nepal and its commercial partners are with India. The United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Turkey are among Nepal’s other main export markets. However, India, China, Argentina, the United Arab Emirates, and the United States are Nepal’s main import suppliers. To lessen its reliance on India, Nepal has been attempting to diversify its trading relationships. The nation has been looking into ways to expand its trade with Bangladesh, China, and other nations.

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

For Nepal’s economy to thrive, foreign direct investment (FDI) is a crucial source of funding. FDI worth 32 billion NPR was directed to Nepal in 2020. The top foreign investors in Nepal are from China, India, the United States, South Korea, and the British Virgin Islands. The government of Nepal has been providing numerous incentives to draw FDI, including tax breaks, profit repatriation, and streamlined investment procedures. To draw FDI, Nepal is boosting industries including hydropower, tourism, agriculture, and manufacturing.


One of the main drivers of Nepal’s economy is tourism. The nation is renowned for its stunning mountains, hiking routes, and culturally significant locations. Around 232,000 visitors visited Nepal in 2020, a sharp decline from the 1.2 million tourists Nepal had in 2019 before to the pandemic. Russia, China, the United States, the United Kingdom, and India are Nepal’s top tourist-producing nations. Through a number of steps, including granting visa-free travel to some nations, creating new trekking routes, and enhancing infrastructure, Nepal has been encouraging tourism.

Official Development Assistance(ODA)

For Nepal’s development programs, official development aid (ODA) is a significant source of funding. Nepal received USD 1,870,003,870 in ODA in the year 2020. The United States, the United Kingdom, China, India, and Japan are the main bilateral development partners, while the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the European Union, the United Nations, and GAVI are the leading multilateral development partners. In order to obtain funding for its development projects, the Nepalese government has been actively interacting with these development partners.

Foreign Employment

Many Nepalese laborers rely heavily on their income from outside employment. 166,698 Nepalese employees acquired new work visas or extensions to work abroad in 2020. Only two nations, Qatar and Saudi Arabia, which are countries where labor is sought after, have bilateral agreements with Nepal. However, Nepalese laborers are also employed in nations like the UAE, Bahrain, and Oman. The government of Nepal has been attempting to enhance the welfare and working circumstances of Nepalese workers abroad.

With all these, Nepal’s economic diplomacy has centered on maximizing its advantages in commerce, investment, tourism, official development assistance, and international employment. Nepal has been looking for ways to increase foreign direct investment (FDI), diversify its trade partners, promote tourism, secure more ODA, and enhance working conditions for Nepalese employees abroad. Nepal has the opportunity to profit from the economic rise of both China and India, thanks to our strategic placement between the two major economic giants. To fully achieve our economic potential, we must overcome a number of issues, including weak infrastructure, unstable politics, and a challenging business environment.

At the same time, we can’t deny the fact that the disastrous NepalQuake 2015 and COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant negative impact on Nepal’s economy, particularly the travel and remittance industries. The Nepalese government has been putting different steps in reconstruction as well as in place to lessen the pandemic’s negative economic effects, including aiding the impacted enterprises, promoting domestic travel, and increasing infrastructure spending. For Nepal to fully recover from all these and continue to prosper, our economic diplomacy will be of paramount importance.

Nepal’s economic diplomacy has been concentrated on utilizing its advantages and strengths to support economic development and prosperity. The government of Nepal has been aggressively collaborating with its allies to obtain funding to advance commerce, investment, tourism, and international employment. Although Nepal has a number of obstacles, its advantageous position, stunning scenery, and developing economy provide it with many chances for economic expansion and advancement.

Keyword Research Tools for SEO friendly content writers

Search engine optimization (SEO) and internet marketing both depend on keyword research. The proper keywords can improve your website’s position in search engine results pages (SERPs), bring in more qualified visitors, and increase conversion rates. The top 10 keyword research tools are listed below to assist you in finding the ideal keywords for your company:

  • Google Keyword Planner The free keyword research tool from Google AdWords is a fantastic place to start. You can use it to see the typical monthly keyword searches and get suggestions for new keywords to target.
Image: Google Keyword Planner
  • SEMrush – This all-in-one marketing solution offers thorough keyword research, competition analysis, and keyword tracking. Using SEMrush, you can see the keywords that your competitors are ranked for and discover their paid and organic search strategies.
  • Ahrefs – Another extensive SEO tool with tools for keyword research is Ahrefs. It offers comprehensive keyword information, including search volume, keyword difficulty, and each keyword’s click-through and impression rates.
  • Keyword Tool – A free online tool for researching keywords, Keyword Tool offers term suggestions based on Google Autocomplete. It assists you in locating keywords associated with your niche and offers long-tail keyword suggestions.
  • Moz Keyword Explorer – A paid keyword research tool called Moz Keyword Explorer provides keyword suggestions, information on search volume, rankings for keyword difficulty, and SERP analysis. Also, it aids in locating keywords with a strong focus on commerce and locating those with a lot of potential for traffic.
  • Ubersuggest – A free keyword research tool called Ubersuggest comes up with keyword suggestions based on Google Suggest and other sources. For each keyword, it offers data on keyword volume, CPC, and competitiveness.
  • SERPstat – SERPstat is a comprehensive SEO tool that offers capabilities for backlink analysis, site audit, competitor analysis, and keyword research. You can research the top-ranking pages for each keyword using SERPstat to identify profitable keywords.
  • KWFinder – A paid keyword research tool called KWFinder offers SERP analysis, search traffic, keyword difficulty scores, and keyword suggestions. Also, it aids in the discovery of long-tail keywords with high search traffic and little rivalry.
  • Keywords Everywhere – The free browser extension Keywords Everywhere shows keyword information for each keyword you search for on Google and other search engines, such as search volume, CPC, and competitiveness.
  • Keyword Revealer – A paid keyword research service called Keyword Revealer offers keyword recommendations, search volume information, and keyword difficulty ratings. Also, it aids in locating terms with high search traffic and little competition.

Finally, these top 10 keyword research tools can assist you in locating the most appropriate terms for your company. Keyword research is an essential component of SEO and internet marketing. You may raise conversion rates, increase targeted visitors, and increase your website’s visibility in search engines by choosing the appropriate keywords.

Assertion in SQL – Basic

In SQL, an assertion is a statement that ensures that certain conditions are always enforced in the database no matter what. Same as domain or other constraints, assertions differ in the way that they are defined separately from table definitions. It is a named statement that defines a condition that must be true for the data in the database. If the condition is not met, the assertion will fail and the database will generate an error.

Here is the syntax for creating an assertion in SQL:

CREATE ASSERTION assertion_name
CHECK (condition);

For example, to create an assertion called “salary_assertion” that checks that no employee in the “employees” table has a salary greater than $100,000, you could use the following statement:

CREATE ASSERTION salary_assertion
CHECK (salary <= 100000);

We can create different assertions for specific conditions that must always satisfy in SQL. For example, the department_id attribute in manager relation is always not null since each manager works at least in one department. The following example shows an assertion named nomanager which checks that all the tuples in manager relation with department_id being NULL as not a manager.


    WHERE  Department_id is NULL));

Hence, the above assertion ensures that there is no manager who is not assigned any department at any time.

Another example can be the sum of all loan amounts for each branch must be less than the sum of all account balances at the branch. This can be satisfied by creating assertion as below:

     create assertion sum-constraint check
     (not exists (select * from
where (
select sum(amount) from loan
where loan.branch-name =
(select sum(amount) from   account
where loan.branch-name = branch.branch-name)))

To drop an assertion, you can use the following statement:

DROP ASSERTION assertion_name;

Assertions are useful for enforcing data integrity and ensuring that the data in the database meets certain conditions. They can be used to enforce business rules or to ensure the consistency of the data. However, they can also be time-consuming to create and maintain, so they are not always used in practice.

What is Metaverse? Are we very close to live in immersive digital world alongside physical world?

Hi everyone! So, here I’m with the hot topic for you that’s gaining popularity never like before- Metaverse! With excessive use of these terms by majority of news portals and tech websites recently, you might be thinking what actually is the metaverse?

Firstly, to understand fundamental about Metaverse, let’s dissect its word structure or say it syllable. Metaverse is a word which is combination of two words “Meta” which means beyond and “Verse” referring to Universe. So combinedly, it’s beyond what we see and feel in our very surrounding.

Well, to start, if we think of the internet as revolutionary technology than we might be known to the fact that lots of expert discussions are centered to Web 3.0, which is supposed to be the recent version of world wide web. We’re all familiar with world wide web(WWW) or say it just “web” and maybe some of us already delved into “web development” as well. What we were doing on web was just using playing with linear two dimensional constructs like images, texts, web pages, animations etc. And now, the metaverse is playing with spatial construct as opposed to the previous web. By saying space, it’s not just a game or entertainment stuff.

It’s blend of real universe with immaginary universe that is created collaboratively by independent users or organizations with the help of recent technological advancements like Augmented Reality(AR) and Virtual Reality(VR). We can refer metaverse as the latest and future version of the internet as well and so do the majority of tech giants.

Majority of general public believe that the idea behind metaverse is same as experiences that they gain by participating in the virtual gaming platforms with an avatar of self. FYI, avatar is a virtual version of ourselves that we control as we explore this entirely new online frontier.

Wait, but what will we actually do with avatars in metaverse? It it just like Social media with 3D avatars of people talking with each other and hanging out? That understanding is not wrong either but it’s not everything!

Technology world, regarding metaverse, is just in adoption and testing phase and some players are already working towards this technology to great extent. But, rather than confining our imagination just to what we’re seeing as metaverse right now, it’s better to imagine what the metaverse could be in future and how it’s going to change the way we’re connecting with friends and family as well as how businesses could leverage this technology and benefit in near future.

Metaverse is trying to build everything to be immersive and connect our physical existence with physical like virtual existence. By saying so, it doesn’t mean that everything has to be virtual reality. It could also just be on our smartphone or on a personal computer. You might have noticed that we’re using the tools of the metaverse to create a good portion of this items already. I spend a lot of time these days; first, trying to just define what the metaverse actually is. With the zeal of exploring this technology, I recently signed up to a metaverse platforms named “Oasis” and “Uhive” where I was given to create an avatar of mine and get involved with either VR headset or smartphone itself. Except for daily mundane routines of sleeping, getting up, eating, going to work, hangout with dear ones, whatever I wanna do, I can do it in the Oasis. Hanging around my favorite spots like cities, museums, auditorium, sea beaches etc., meeting new people and starting conversations or watching movies together for a while is just a little in these platforms.

Majority of platforms like these provide tools for people to create their avatars from the very scratch or from a profile photo that they’ve uploaded. This become the virtual version of user which travel between online experiences in any metaverse. Over time, as lot of users are investing time in such future digital world, what I’m most excited about is an economy involved in such platforms. I mean, digital economy is not just related to digital goods and engagement time but also services in an immersive environment to great extent. With my avatar, activities and habituality comes various things. I’m going to need a stylist maybe, unlock features to expand my limitless opportunities or have to earn or buy a virtual home space or so on.

A recent Bloomberg intelligence report believes that the market opportunity for the metaverse could be $800 billion by 2024.

Some tech giants like Microsoft has adapted its workplace meeting software teams for the metaverse already. They’re developing a system called mesh designed to work with a variety of different devices including virtual and augmented reality. Mesh is designed to operate on top of the real world that we live in, using headsets like Microsoft’s HoloLens or even with mobile phones.

Microsoft Mesh Mixed Reality Hero | Image:

During pandemic, we all have experienced online meetings and online classes never like before and what we all probably felt as participant of two dimensional flat video meeting was the low effectiveness or fatigued maybe. But with mesh, Microsoft realize they now on the verge of making communication to about less speech and more involvement with facial expressions, gestures and everything else.

With metaverse, I shall be in my living room with the entire team from different geographical location around the same table making eye contact along with all the gestures that are coming into the right place. That can change completely the way we do meetings and work in team. Its not limited only to these meeting things by the way. Metaverse isn’t just about seeing these virtual worlds and interacting via same tools we’re using now but about feeling them as well.

Image: Freepik

Facebook recently changed its company’s branding name as “Meta” to shift it’s focus towards metaverse and probably to dominate the market of VR the earliest possible. They’re working on Oculus VR Headsets affordability rapidly to take advantage as early adopters. Meta has also revealed that it’s been working on a glove that will let the user feel sensations like holding an object and touch/feel as well. The glove has a number of sensors that measure the wearer’s movements. On ethe other hand, air pockets managed across the glove surface inflate to create sensation as well. These gloves aren’t quite ready for prime time yet but they’re an indicator of the kind of research that’s going on behind the surface.

I think we are very-very close, and witnessing every day though, the exodus from a purely physical world to an increasingly immersive synthetic digital world that doesn’t look like one place we all go to, but it’s actually just the blend of the different digital worlds that we experience on our various devices.

There’s no doubt that Metaverse depicts a future internet of 3D immersive spaces linked into a spatial virtual universe, but universal technology standards, affordable and accessible interfaces, security and privacy as well as communication protocols between users, devices and among virtual environment systems are still in development phase.

Porter’s Value Chain Analysis for Hotel Industry

Michael Porter created a concept called value chain analysis to assist firms in identifying the processes that add value for stakeholders and customers. The model is predicated on the notion that organizations are made up of a variety of tasks carried out to develop, create, sell, provide, and support goods and services. Each step in the value chain presents a potential source of competitive advantage and a chance for businesses to streamline their processes and set themselves apart from rivals.

Porter’s value chain model can be used to pinpoint the actions that help create and deliver value to visitors in the hotel sector. Hotels can find areas where they can increase productivity, cut expenses, and improve the guest experience by evaluating the value chain. This can range from obtaining raw materials and controlling inventory to providing individualized service and preserving customer happiness. In the end, hotels may achieve their strategic objectives and acquire a competitive advantage in the market by optimizing their value chain.

Poeter’s framework aids in identifying the many tasks involved in producing value for clients in the hospitality sector is the hotel industry value chain analysis. Primary activities and support activities make up the value chain as described below.


  1. Inbound Logistics: including the receipt, storage, and distribution of supplies needed for hotel operations are referred to as inbound logistics. By streamlining the procurement process, technology enables the hotel to get goods and services at the lowest cost and with the quickest turnaround.

An example is a cloud-based procurement tool that a hotel may use to automate purchases, monitor inventory levels, and notify workers when it’s time to refill supplies.

  1. Operations: This refers to all of the tasks involved in maintaining a hotel operational, including housekeeping, front desk duties, food and beverage services, and maintenance. Technology contributes to value creation by streamlining operations, cutting costs, and raising service standards.

With an automated housekeeping management system, for instance, a hotel can speed up response times and enhance client satisfaction by enabling housekeepers to manage room cleaning requests from a mobile device.

  1. Outbound logistics: These are all the tasks involved in providing guests with the hotel’s goods and services. By allowing the hotel to deliver goods and services swiftly and effectively, cutting expenses, and raising customer happiness, technology aids in value creation.

A hotel might employ a digital concierge service that enables visitors to use their mobile device to buy room service, make reservations at restaurants, and arrange tours and other activities. This would cut down on wait times and enhance the guest experience.

  1. Marketing & Sales: All of the activities involved in promoting and selling the hotel’s goods and services fall under the category of marketing and sales. By allowing the hotel to reach a larger audience, customize marketing campaigns, and boost revenue, technology aids in value creation.

Using a customer relationship management (CRM) system, for instance, enables a hotel to gather and examine guest information, customise marketing messages, and assess the success of marketing efforts.

  1. Service: This refers to all actions taken to give visitors excellent customer service while they are visiting. By improving the guest experience, cutting down on wait times, and raising customer satisfaction, technology aids in value creation.

A hotel can employ a platform for guest engagement, for instance, that enables visitors to interact with staff via a mobile device in real-time, making personalized recommendations and quickly resolving any difficulties. This promotes client satisfaction and the guest experience.


  1. Procurement: This refers to any actions taken in connection with obtaining the items and services necessary for hotel operations. By automating the procurement process, cutting expenses, and increasing efficiency, technology contributes to value creation.

An example is a cloud-based procurement tool that a hotel may use to automate purchases, monitor inventory levels, and notify workers when it’s time to refill supplies.

  1. Technology development: This term refers to the actions involved in creating and maintaining the technological infrastructure needed to run a hotel. By increasing productivity, cutting costs, and improving the guest experience, technology aids in value creation.

A property management system (PMS) can be used by a hotel to integrate all of its operations, from front desk work to housekeeping, allowing staff to run the establishment more effectively and enhance the visitor experience.

  1. Human Resource Management: Management of human resources comprises all actions taken to oversee the staff at the hotel. Through increasing productivity, lowering expenses, and increasing employee happiness, technology aids in value creation.

The hiring process may be automated, employee performance can be tracked, and employee benefits can be managed using a cloud-based human resource management (HRM) system, for instance, which increases productivity and lowers administrative expenses.

  1. Firm Infrastructure: This refers to all operations involved in maintaining the hotel’s physical assets, such as its buildings, machinery, and facilities. By increasing productivity, cutting costs, and improving the guest experience, technology aids in value creation.

The deployment of a smart building management system by a hotel, for instance, can lower energy costs and enhance visitor satisfaction by monitoring and controlling energy use such as Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) operations, lighting, and security.

Top 10 Platforms to Host Your Apps for Free

Hi everyone, here I present you the list of top 10 platforms to host your application absolutely free of cost.

1. Heroku is a platform as a service (PaaS) that enables developers to build, run, and operate applications. It lets companies build, deliver, monitor and scale apps — facilitating the fastest way to go from idea to URL, bypassing all those infrastructure headaches.
Get started: Cloud Application Platform | Heroku

2. Vercel
Vercel, company behind next.js react framework, is the best place to deploy any frontend app. You can start by deploying with zero configuration and scale your application as per your plan.
You can get started here: Develop. Preview. Ship. For the best frontend teams – Vercel

3. Firebase
Its another popular cloud based platform founded in 2011 which was acquired by Google in 2014. Firebase provides detailed documentation and cross-platform SDKs to help you build and ship apps on Android, iOS, the web, C++, and Unity. It is popular among developers for creating mobile and web applications.
Get started: Firebase (

4. Netlify
Netlify is a San Francisco-based cloud computing company that offers hosting and serverless backend services for web applications and static websites. The company provides hosting for websites whose source files are stored in the version control system Git and then generated into static web content files served via a Content Delivery Network. It do have Netlify CMS to tackle limitations of the purely static model and serverless to handle web projects with interactivity.
Get Started: Netlify: Develop & deploy the best web experiences in record time

5. GitHub Pages
GitHub Pages is a static site hosting service that takes HTML, CSS, and JavaScript files straight from a repository on GitHub, optionally runs the files through a build process, and publishes a website. 
Get started here: GitHub Pages | Websites for you and your projects, hosted directly from your GitHub repository. Just edit, push, and your changes are live.

6. Render
Render is a unified cloud to build and run all your apps and websites with free SSL, a global CDN, private networks, and auto deploys from Git.
Get started for free here: Cloud Application Hosting for Developers | Render (

7. AWS
Amazon Web Services (AWS) began offering IT infrastructure as services starting back in 2006 to businesses as web services—now commonly known as cloud computing. It is a subsidiary of Amazon that provides on-demand cloud computing platforms and APIs to individuals, companies, and governments, on a metered pay-as-you-go basis.
Get started here: Free Cloud Computing Services – AWS Free Tier (

8. Azure
Azure by Microsoft is a cloud computing that provides software as a service (SaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) and infrastructure as a service (IaaS) to it’s clients. Azure do supports many different programming languages, tools, and frameworks developed by Microsoft and also offers majority of popular third-party software. Azure offers free account with popular services free for 12 months, more than 25 services free always, and $200 credit to use in your first 30 days. 
Get started here: Get started with Azure – Introduction | Microsoft Azure

9. Surge
Surge is an expert in developing fully static websites and applications for front-end developers. Deploy anything in six keystrokes. There’s only six keystrokes between you and deployment: Type surge and hit enter in your project directory to get it online immediately. 
Try it here: Surge

10. GitLab Pages
GitLab makes it incredibly easy to build, deploy, and host your modern static websites via their free GitLab Pages service, which provides native support for numerous Static Site Generators (SSG), such as Gatsby, Next.js, Nuxt, Jekyll, Hugo, Hexo, Middleman and Pelican. To get started with GitLab, you can either fork an existing project, or you create a new one for yourself. On the GitLab Pages Quick Start Guide, which is, by the way, a site built with Middleman, you will find the steps for forking an existing project from a list of examples prepared for you.
Get started for free here: Try GitLab for free | GitLab

Hope you find this list useful.

Top 10 Free Code Editors for Web Developers in 2020

Hello everyone I’m here to share my list of the top 10 code editors for web developers with you folks. As web development is a profession that is always changing, having the appropriate tools at your disposal can significantly increase your productivity and efficiency. A code editor is one of the most essential tools for a web developer. Software that aids in writing and editing code is known as a code editor. It offers tools for debugging, code completion, and syntax highlighting. It can be challenging to decide which code editor to use because there are so many choices. We’ll examine the top 10 code editors for web developers in this article.

1. VS Code
Visual Studio Code, also referred to as VS Code, is the first editor on this list. It is a source-code editor created by Microsoft Corporation for the Windows, Linux, and Mac Operating Systems. Microsoft created Visual Studio Code, a free and open-source code editor. Due to its sophisticated features, like IntelliSense, which offers intelligent completions based on variable types, function definitions, and imported modules, it is one of the most well-liked code editors among web developers. Debugging support, syntax highlighting, intelligent code completion, snippets, code refactoring, and embedded Git are among the features. The theme, keyboard shortcuts, options, and extensions that offer more functionality can all be changed by users. If you haven’t, I highly suggest giving it a shot.

2. Atom
The second code editor on the list is Atom, a text and source code editor for macOS, Linux, and Microsoft Windows that supports JavaScript plug-ins and has incorporated Git Control. Another open-source, free code editor that is very customisable is called Atom. It is created by GitHub and has a sizable user and contributor community. You may install and manage packages for more functionality using the in-built package management. Atom is a desktop program created by GitHub that makes use of web technology. The majority of the expanding packages are created and maintained by the community and have free software licenses. You should give it a try; you won’t regret it.

3. Sublime Text
Sublime Text, a commercial source code editor that natively supports numerous programming languages and markup languages, is another extremely well-liked editor. Commercial code editors like Sublime Text are renowned for their efficiency and clean aesthetics. You may install and manage packages for more functionality using the in-built package management. It’s among the greatest options for developers who want an easy-to-use interface. Users have the freedom to choose which plugins to install according to their needs; these plugins are often community-built and maintained under free-software licenses. Sublime Text has a robust Python API that helps with plugins.

4. Vim
The next item on the list is Vim code editor, a screen-based, open-source text editor for Unix that is free to use. Vim is a robust text editor with a lot of configuration options that has been around for more than 25 years. Experienced developers love its keyboard-based instructions and effective workflows, which is why it is so well-liked by them. It is a more effective version of Bill Joy’s vi. The Stevie editor for the Amiga was ported to create Vim, which was created by Bram Moolenaar and made available to the public in 1991. Vim can be used as a standalone program in a graphical user interface or through a command-line interface.

5. Emacs
Unrestricted text editing software is GNU Emacs. Another lengthy-lived text editor with a lot of configuration options is Emacs. It enjoys enormous popularity among seasoned developers who value its extensibility and potent features. Richard Stallman, the man behind the GNU Project, developed it. In line with other variations of Emacs, GNU Emacs is expandable using a Turing complete programming language. The “most powerful text editor currently available” is GNU Emacs. Since at least 1999, GNU Emacs has been able to simultaneously show the majority of human languages and can display files in various character sets with the right support from the underlying system.

6. Komodo Edit
A free and open-source code editor called Komodo Edit is based on the same technology as the Komodo IDE, a for-profit product. Many of the same capabilities found in the IDE are also available here, including code autocompletion, debugging, and support for different languages. It debuted in January 2007 as an addition to ActiveState’s for-profit Komodo IDE. Komodo Edit is based on the Open Komodo project as to version 4.3. Python programmers no longer support or maintain Komodo IDE.

7. Light Table
The integrated development environment (IDE) known as Light Table for software engineering was made by Chris Granger and Robert Attorri. Because to its unique interface, you can see the results of your code as you type. It offers real-time feedback capabilities that make it possible to browse documentation, debug code, and execute code right away.

8. Nova
A brand-new, fully functional code editor from Panic, a renowned maker of numerous Mac OS applications. An official code editor for macOS is called Nova. It is renowned for its lightning-quick performance, slick user interface, and cutting-edge features including a built-in terminal and multilingual support. It has all the features you desire, like smart autocomplete, multiple cursors, a Minimap, editor overscroll, tag pairs and brackets, and a ton more. It is brand-new, incredibly quick, and configurable. You won’t be sorry if you just give it a shot.

9. Notepad++
This list’s second-to-last item is something you may have used in the past or heard mentioned someplace. Windows-specific code editor Notepad++ is free and open-source. It is renowned for its quickness, spick-and-span UI, and multilingual support. The ability to work with many open files in a single window is supported via tabbed editing. The name of the product is derived from the increment operator used in programming.

10. TextMate for macOS
The last item on the list is TextMate, an all-purpose GUI text editor developed by Allan Odgaard for the macOS operating system. An expensive code editor made specifically for macOS is called TextMate. It is renowned for its lightning-quick performance, slick user interface, and cutting-edge features including a built-in terminal and multilingual support. Declarative modifications, open document tabs, recordable macros, folding sections, snippets, shell interaction, and an extendable bundle system are all characteristics of TextMate.

At last, choosing the correct code editor can significantly impact how productive and effective you are as a web developer. You may create and edit code more effectively with the help of the best 10 code editors for web developers that we’ve covered in this post. There is a code editor on this list that will meet your needs, whether you are a novice or an expert coder. Whatever one you decide on, be sure to spend the time learning its features and shortcuts to make the most of it. Coding is fun!

Facebook Down for 6 hours ― everything you need to know

Facebook family of apps gone through a rare yet lengthy outage on Monday’s night and cost of this technical glitch is getting reflected everywhere. With a day outage in 2008, 14 hours outage in 2019 and now for almost 6 hours, it seems that Facebook is gradually loosing control from their technology and downtime control. According to Facebook, cause of recent outage was faulty system configuration which took their team hours to resolve.

Facebook recently published a blog explaining what was happened and apologized for inconvenience. Facebook’s Official Blog writes,

To all the people and businesses around the world who depend on us, we are sorry for the inconvenience caused by today’s outage across our platforms. We’ve been working as hard as we can to restore access, and our systems are now back up and running. The underlying cause of this outage also impacted many of the internal tools and systems we use in our day-to-day operations, complicating our attempts to quickly diagnose and resolve the problem.

According to their official blog, they did experienced problems in tools and other technologies inside company that made the problem solution even more complicated.

“Our engineering teams have learned that configuration changes on the backbone routers that coordinate network traffic between our data centers caused issues that interrupted this communication. This disruption to network traffic had a cascading effect on the way our data centers communicate, bringing our services to a halt.”

According to Facebook, they also have no evidence that user data was compromised as a result of this downtime.

Facebook and WhatsApp did apologized on Twitter and writes,

CTO Mike Schorepfer on Twitter writes,

Along with billions of daily active users, businesses as well as investors seems to gradually loosing trust over this tech giant. Recent outage cost in billions for the company as well and reports are coming from around the world stating that their market value seems declining as well.

According to forbes, their shares gone down by 4.8% and zapping away billions from CEO Mark Zuckerberg’s fortune. To be exact, Zuckerberg’s net worth declined by $5.9 billion in total.

With this huge loss from his net worth, he has also slipped from 5th richest person to 6th richest person in the world billionaires list.

Agile Software Process Model – An Introduction

Concept of agile software development

Agile is a software development model that encourages the continuous iteration of development and testing in the entire software development lifecycle of the project. It’s a modern approach in Software Development in which requirements and solution evolve through the collaborative effort of self organizing and cross-functional team along with their customers or end users. It is related to the method of project management, used especially for software and web apps development, that is characterized by the division of tasks into short chunk of work and frequent reassessment and adaptation of plans.

Image: Advantages of Agile Model | Source: hachinet

In agile approach, which is guided by the Principles of Agile Manifesto, both the development as well as testing activities are concurrent. Majority of documentation tasks like that in waterfall and prototype models are avoided and every activities in this model move very fast. Product development traverse through activities like Requirements Collection, Planning, Design and Development, Testing, Release and Monitoring very fast in this model of software development.

IN AGILE MODEL, values are delivered to customers in small increments onE after another where they get time and chance to experience it and provide feedback right away.

Key Point to Remember

As inputs and requirements from all the stakeholders as well as executives, customers, end users and team as a whole are collected, process proceed by gathering all the high level(Generic) requirements and features in one place. The initial list of high level requirements are referred to as epic. Epic is nothing other than collection of client’s organizational/business needs.
For example: As a teacher,
I’m having difficulty in managing students attendance and I need an application that can be used in classroom for students attendance management.

(Above need can be taken as an example of epic. It only address “why?” part of software development and cover huge requirement.)

Collected epic is further divided into workable chunks of functional categories which are referred to as stories. Collection of stories form epic, means that stories are nothing other than decomposition of high level requirement into parts or collection of features. From the example of epic depicted above, clients or customers need can be presented in form of stories.
For example: As a Teacher,
Story #1. I should be able to login to system
Story #2. I can view students details
Story #3. I can filter student information weekly, monthly, quarterly and yearly.

(Above 3 stories make team clear on “what?” part of the process. i.e. What actually the customer need as features of software that is going to be developed.)

Stories are further decomposed to narrow scope of actions and referred to as tasks. There may be numerous tasks in single activity. Tasks are collection of well defined actions that development and quality assurance team perform on daily basis. So mainly two varieties of tasks Development Tasks and Quality Assurance Tasks are prepared here. From the story #1 above, we can divide actions and define the tasks/solutions.
For example,
Development Tasks to carried out in Login System can be
1. Review the requirement and Estimate
2. Design and Code
3. Unit and Integration Testing

Development Tasks to carried out in Login System can be
1. Review Story
2. Develop Test case, plan test scenario, gather test data
3. Set up the test environment
4. Execute Test and Report bugs if there’re any

(This gives a clear picture of “how?” part of software process, i.e. features that are to be developed and tested by team.)

What is Scrum?

Another part in Agile Software Process is framework for software process. Framework defines how team work to develop system in collaborative manner actually. Some frameworks that are guided by Agile philosophy includes Extreme Programming(XP), Rapid Software Development(RAD), Scrum, Feature Driven Development(FDD), Lean Method, Crystal Method etc. Among them, Scrum is one of the most popular Agile methodologies as of today. In short, all Scrum projects incorporate Agile philosophy, but not all Agile projects necessarily use the Scrum.

Agile Scrum Roles:

Scrum Master Facilitates the overall process. He/she encourage, facilitate, reflect, share, reward and protect whole team. Main role is to guide the project team and the product owner during the development phase and ensures that the team is implementing all the required agile practices properly.
Product Owner Get requirements from clients, define features, decide release date, prioritize features, modify features as per need, and accept or reject results. Their main role is to interconnect client/business part with the development team.
Scrum TeamInclude Development Professionals(designers, architects, engineers etc.) and Quality Assurance professionals. Their main role is to transform the client’s needs to working system.

Definition of Ready(DOR) and Definition of Done(DOD): List of prerequisites / conditions by satisfying which story or task are considered either ready for test or done.

Fig: Agile Scrum Framework of Software Process | Image: Tuleap

How agile scrum team work?

With the input from executives, team, stakeholders, customers and users of system, Project Owner list clients epics and stories to create list of features called as Product Backlog. Product backlog contains all the requirements of customer.

Whole team(Owner, Developers, Testers, Scrum Master) sit on a meeting to plan for the estimated delivery of each features or user stories based on priorities and feasibility. Development team and QA team give some estimation point(usually a random number of days like 1,2,3,5,8,13,.. etc.) to collected client stories. Based on these estimations, Whole project development time is sliced into small fractions where group of actions are performed and each chunk is referred to as sprint. Sprint is a term that refer to a short time period or iteration(usually of 2 weeks to 1 month) during which new features are designed, developed, tested and incremented into project as a release. Sprint plan made in participation of development and QA team is often referred to as Sprint Backlog.

Developers and QAs write their own task for each stories and execute task actively in collaborative manner. Though sprint time may be of 2 weeks to 1 months, team meet everyday to report status of last as well as next activity and blockages(if any).

Team uses varieties of software management tools to track and monitor activities, deliverables, releases and overall status of software process. We, at illionSo Technologies, are using Scrum Boards(excessively) as well as Kanban Boards(rarely) to track agile process activities. We do use project management tools like Jira – for medium scale software development and Trello – for web project management.

Image: Agile Scrum Board example | Source: illionSo

Thanks and happy learning!


VB Code to convert Digit to Text in MS Word Document

Copy the code below by creating a new Macro to convert:

To add shortcut for this macro, you shall follow this article that I’ve written in prior.

Sub DigitToText()
    Dim datasagar_Digits As String
    Dim datasagar_NumText As String

    datasagar_NumText = ""

    ' Select Number from Word Document 
    Selection.MoveLeft Unit:=wdWord, Count:=1, Extend:=wdMove
    Selection.MoveRight Unit:=wdWord, Count:=1, Extend:=wdExtend

    ' Store digits in variable named datasagar_Digits
    datasagar_Digits = Trim(Selection.Text)

    If Val(datasagar_Digits) > 999999 Then
        If Val(datasagar_Digits) <= 999999999 Then
            datasagar_NumText = Trim(Int(Str(Val(datasagar_Digits) / 1000000)))
            ' For selection range, create a field containing the digits and the cardtext format flag
            Selection.Fields.Add Range:=Selection.Range, _
              Type:=wdFieldEmpty, Text:="= " + datasagar_NumText + " \* CardText", _

            ' Select the previously created field and copy it
            Selection.MoveLeft Unit:=wdWord, Count:=1, Extend:=wdExtend
            datasagar_NumText = Selection.Text & " million "
            datasagar_Digits = Right(datasagar_Digits, 6)
        End If
    End If
    If Val(datasagar_Digits) <= 999999 Then
        ' Create a field containing that digits and the cardtext format flag
        Selection.Fields.Add Range:=Selection.Range, _
          Type:=wdFieldEmpty, Text:="= " + datasagar_Digits + " \* CardText", _

        ' Select the field and copy it
        Selection.MoveLeft Unit:=wdWord, Count:=1, Extend:=wdExtend
        datasagar_Digits = datasagar_NumText & Selection.Text

        ' Replace number with words in the selected area of word document
        Selection.TypeText Text:=datasagar_Digits
        Selection.TypeText Text:=" "
        MsgBox "Number too large", vbOKOnly
    End If
End Sub

Add Shortcut to use the Macro you’ve created in MS Word

After adding Macro in MS Word document, you can follow the steps below to create shortcut for it.

  1. Go to File Menu –> Options or Right Click on Office Ribbon
  2. After that, Goto Customize Ribbon
  3. You’ll see Customize option on the bottom of commands category there, Click on it.

4. Follow Steps as in image below:
Scroll down to find Macro Command and click on it, You’ll see previously created Macros on the right. In my Case it’sDigitToText.

5. Click on it And press any shortcut key combination to run this macro automatically afterward using that shortcut. (Alt + C) in my case.

Click on Assign –> Close and You’re ready to give it a try.

From your word document select number and then press your shortcut key combination to convert it to Text.

Thanks and Happy Learning!

Windows Memory Integrity – How to protect your Core system data in windows

Memory integrity is a security feature in the Windows operating system that helps prevent malicious code from tampering with system memory. This feature is designed to protect critical system processes, kernel-mode drivers, and system memory pages from tampering, which can lead to serious security vulnerabilities.

Memory integrity was first introduced in Windows 10 Creators Update and is now an essential component of the Windows security platform. It operates by restricting access to system memory to only trusted processes, drivers, and memory pages. This is achieved by assigning system memory pages with a special security attribute known as “write-protected.”

This feature helps prevent various types of attacks such as buffer overflow attacks, where an attacker attempts to write past the end of a buffer and overwrite critical data in memory. Memory integrity also helps prevent other types of memory-based attacks, such as rogue processes that inject malicious code into the memory space of other processes.

Memory integrity operates by using hardware-based virtualization technology, specifically hardware-enforced memory integrity. This technology creates a virtualized environment for system memory, where the hardware can enforce memory protection policies without the need for software-based solutions.

In order to take advantage of memory integrity, Windows requires compatible hardware, specifically processors that support hardware-based virtualization technology. Most modern processors support this technology, but it is important to check if your device meets the minimum requirements before enabling memory integrity.

To enable memory integrity in Windows, you can use the Windows Security app. To do this, simply open the Windows Security app, go to the “Device Security” section, and turn on “Core isolation details.” From there, you can enable memory integrity, as well as other security features, such as system firmware protection and virtualization-based security.

In conclusion, memory integrity is an essential security feature in Windows that helps protect your system against memory-based attacks. By restricting access to system memory to only trusted processes and drivers, memory integrity helps prevent malicious code from tampering with system memory and compromising the security of your device. Whether you’re a home user or a business, it’s important to take advantage of this feature to ensure the security of your system and data.

SET operations in SQL

Set operations combines the results of two independent SQL queries. There are three set operations in SQL 


2. Intersect

3. Except

These set operations operate on relations and are based on the general principles of mathematical set theory that you’ve probably covered in school level math. 

One thing to not forgot is, each of these operations automatically eliminates duplicates in the result. In order to retain all the duplicates, one can use the corresponding multiset versions of basic set operations union all, intersect all and except all.

Suppose a tuple/row occurs m times in a relation named r and n times in relation named s then it occurs

m  + n times in r union all s

min(m,n) times in r intersect all s

max(0, m – n) times in r except all s.

Some example queries are shown in image below:

The relation schemes for all the examples used above are:

Branch(bname, bcity, assets)

Customer(cname, street, ccity)

Depositor(cname, account#)

Account(bname, account#, balance)

Loan(bname, loan#, amount)

Borrower(cname, loan#)

Top 10 code editors for web developers

As web development is a profession that is always changing, having the appropriate tools at your disposal can significantly increase your productivity and efficiency. A code editor is one of the most essential tools for a web developer. Software that aids in writing and editing code is known as a code editor. It offers tools for debugging, code completion, and syntax highlighting. It can be challenging to decide which code editor to use because there are so many choices. We’ll examine the top 10 code editors for web developers in this article.

  1. VS Code: Microsoft created Visual Studio Code, also referred to as VS Code, which is a free and open-source code editor. Due to its sophisticated features, like IntelliSense, which offers intelligent completions based on variable types, function definitions, and imported modules, it is one of the most well-liked code editors among web developers.
  2. Atom: Atom is another another open-source, free code editor that can be easily customized and modified. It is created by GitHub and has a sizable user and contributor community. You may install and manage packages for more functionality using the in-built package management.
  3. Sublime Text: Commercial code editor Sublime Text is renowned for its quick performance and clean aesthetic. You may install and manage packages for more functionality using the in-built package management. It’s among the greatest options for developers who want an easy-to-use interface.
  4. Vim: Vim is a robust text editor with a lot of configuration options that has been around for more than 25 years. Experienced developers love its keyboard-based instructions and effective workflows, which is why it is so well-liked by them.
  5. Emacs: Another extremely customizable text editor that has been around for more than 30 years is called Emacs. It enjoys enormous popularity among seasoned developers who value its extensibility and potent features.
  6. Komodo Edit: Based on the same technology as the for-profit Komodo IDE, Komodo Edit is a free and open-source code editor. Many of the same capabilities found in the IDE are also available here, including code autocompletion, debugging, and support for different languages.
  7. Light Table: Light Table is an open-source, free code editor with a focus on customization and extensibility. You may see the outcomes of your code as you type thanks to its special interface.
  8. Nova: Nova is a for macOS-specific, commercial code editor. It is renowned for its lightning-quick performance, slick user interface, and cutting-edge features including a built-in terminal and multilingual support.
  9. Notepad++: Created for Windows, Notepad++ is a free and open-source code editor. It is renowned for its quickness, spick-and-span UI, and multilingual support.
  10. TextMate for macOS: TextMate is a for macOS-specific, commercial code editor. It is renowned for its lightning-quick performance, slick user interface, and cutting-edge features including a built-in terminal and multilingual support.

Depending on the code editor you select as a web developer, productivity and efficiency could fluctuate significantly. The top 10 code editors for web developers that we’ve covered in this post might help you write and edit code more efficiently. Regardless of whether you are a beginner or an experienced programmer, this list of code editors has one that will suit your needs. Whatever one you choose, make sure to take the time to become familiar with its features and shortcuts in order to get the most out of it. It’s fun to code!

Nepal Data Protection Act (DPA) 2018 – an Introduction

The main piece of law in Nepal that governs the processing of personal data is the 2018 Nepal Data Protection Act (DPA). The Act was passed to ensure the safe and secure use of personal data as well as to safeguard the privacy and personal information of individuals in Nepal.

The Nepal Data Protection Act of 2018 has several important measures, including:

  1. All information that refers to a named or distinguishable natural person is considered personal data under the Act.
  2. To oversee the Act’s implementation and enforcement, the Act created a regulatory organization known as the “Data Protection Authority.”
  3. Individuals must explicitly consent before their personal information is collected, processed, or used for any purpose, according to the Act.
  4. The Act gives data subjects a number of rights, including the ability to see, update, and delete their personal information.
  5. Under the Act, data controllers and processors must implement reasonable safeguards to protect personal data from improper access, use, or disclosure.
  6. It places limitations on the export of personal information from Nepal.

Penalties, such as fines and imprisonment, may apply if provisions of the Nepal Data Protection Act 2018 are broken. Businesses and organizations operating in Nepal must make sure they abide by the Act’s rules while processing personal data, which has important ramifications.

Steps to run Laravel Project downloaded from GitHub

Welcome to! In this blog post, we’ll dive into the exciting world of running Laravel projects downloaded from GitHub. FYI, A well-liked PHP framework for creating web applications is Laravel. Laravel has gained immense popularity among developers for its elegance and efficiency. A large selection of Laravel projects are available for download and use on GitHub, a well-known site for hosting and sharing code repositories. If you’ve recently stumbled upon an intriguing Laravel project on GitHub and are eager to bring it to life on your local machine, you’ve come to the right place. In this step-by-step guide, we’ll walk you through the entire process, from installing the necessary software to launching the project successfully. You can build up the project, prepare the environment, and launch it successfully by according to these guidelines. So, grab a cup of coffee and let’s embark on this Laravel adventure together!

Step 1: Install Required Software
Before getting started, ensure that your machine meets the system requirements for running Laravel projects. You’ll need to have the following software installed:

PHP: Install the latest stable version of PHP on your machine. You can download it from the official PHP website (

Composer: Laravel relies heavily on Composer, a dependency management tool for PHP. Install Composer by following the instructions on the Composer website (

Web Server: You can choose any web server of your preference, such as Apache or Nginx, to serve your Laravel project locally.

Step 2: Clone the Repository Assuming you have Git installed on your machine, follow these steps to clone the Laravel project repository from GitHub:

  1. Open your terminal or command prompt.
  2. Navigate to the directory where you want to store the project.
  3. Run the following command to clone the repository:
git clone <repository-url>

Step 3: Install Dependencies
To ensure all required packages and dependencies are installed, you need to run the Composer install command:

Navigate to the project directory in your terminal.

Execute the following command to install the project dependencies:

composer install

Step 4: Set Up Environment Configuration
Most Laravel projects require environment-specific configurations, such as database credentials and application settings. Follow these steps to set up the environment configuration:

In the project’s root directory, locate the .env.example file.

Create a copy of this file and rename it to .env.

Open the .env file and configure the necessary environment variables, such as the database connection details.

Step 5: Generate Application Key
Laravel requires an application key to secure session data and other sensitive information. Generate a unique application key by executing the following command:

php artisan key:generate

Step 6: Migrate and Seed the Database (if applicable)
If the Laravel project you downloaded includes a database, you may need to migrate and seed it with initial data. Run the following commands in your terminal:

Migrate the database tables:

php artisan migrate

Seed the database (optional, if the project includes seeders):

php artisan db:seed

Step 7: Launch the Laravel Project You’re now ready to launch the Laravel project on your local machine:

  1. In your terminal, navigate to the project directory.
  2. Start the development server by executing the following command:

php artisan serve

Open your web browser and visit http://localhost:8000 (or the specified port) to access the running Laravel project.

Cheers! We’ve explored the essential steps to run a Laravel project downloaded from GitHub, unlocking the potential of an exciting web application development journey. By following these detailed instructions, you’ll be well-equipped to set up the project, configure the environment, and launch it seamlessly on your local machine. Embrace the power of Laravel and let your creativity flourish as you bring innovative ideas to life. Remember to keep experimenting, learning, and pushing the boundaries of what you can achieve with this incredible PHP framework. Happy coding, and may your Laravel projects shine brightly in the digital realm!

Top 10 best websites to learn to program for free

There are a ton of internet tools available to you if you want to start learning how to program. You may master the fundamentals of programming and begin creating your own projects with the aid of these tools, which range from video courses to interactive coding exercises. We’ll look at 10 of the top websites in this blog article where you can learn to program for free.

W3Schools: A well-known website that provides a wealth of tutorials and resources for web development is W3Schools. It contains interactive examples and quizzes to help you put what you’ve learned into practice. It covers a number of topics, including HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and more.

GeeksForGeeks: A website dedicated to computer science and programming, GeeksForGeeks provides tutorials and tools. It covers a wide range of subjects, such as programming languages, algorithms, and data structures. Additionally, it offers sample issues with solutions to assist you hone your abilities.

Tutorialspoint: Another website that provides materials and tutorials for different programming languages is called Tutorialspoint. It gives interactive examples and quizzes to help you put what you’ve learned into practice while covering a variety of subjects, including Java, Python, C++, and more.

FreeCodeCamp: The website FreeCodeCamp offers a thorough curriculum of coding courses and exercises. It offers materials for non-technical abilities like design, data visualization, and more, as well as covering topics like HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and more.

HackerRank: For programmers of all skill levels, HackerRank is a website that offers coding challenges and tournaments. It allows you to compete with other programmers to advance your skills while covering a wide range of subjects and programming languages.

StackOverflow: Programmers can ask questions on the website StackOverflow. A sizable developer community exists there who cooperate and exchange information. It’s an excellent site to learn how to solve typical coding issues or to get answers to specific programming difficulties.

Codeacademy: Interactive coding tutorials and courses are available through this online learning platform. It offers tools for both technical and non-technical abilities, including data analysis, web development, and more. It covers a wide range of topics and programming languages.

Codementor: With the website Codementor, you can get in touch with seasoned programmers who can mentor you and help you advance your knowledge. Together with materials and tutorials on a variety of subjects and programming languages, it also provides one-on-one mentoring sessions.

Kaggle: A framework for data science and machine learning competitions is provided by the website Kaggle. You can learn and hone your skills using a variety of datasets and tutorials that are provided.

Frontend masters: Frontend masters is a website that provides thorough video courses in web development. It offers interactive coding tasks and tests to help you put what you’ve learned into practice. Topics covered include HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and more.

Learning to program can be difficult, but there are lots of internet tools that can guide you through the process. You can develop your skills and create your own projects by using the lessons and materials available on these websites, which cover a wide range of programming languages and subjects. These websites can assist you in developing your programming abilities, regardless of your degree of experience.

Joins in SQL

With SQL, there are various JOIN types that let you combine data from different tables. Below is a quick summary of the most popular JOIN kinds and their syntax:

INNER JOIN: An INNER JOIN returns only the rows that match the join condition in both tables.

FROM table1
ON table1.column = table2.column;


FROM employees
INNER JOIN departments
ON employees.department_id =;

LEFT JOIN (or LEFT OUTER JOIN): A LEFT JOIN returns all rows from the left table (table1), even if there is no match in the right table (table2).

FROM table1
LEFT JOIN table2
ON table1.column = table2.column;


FROM employees
LEFT JOIN departments
ON employees.department_id =;

RIGHT JOIN (or RIGHT OUTER JOIN): A RIGHT JOIN returns all rows from the right table (table2), even if there is no match in the left table (table1).

FROM table1
ON table1.column = table2.column;


FROM employees
RIGHT JOIN departments
ON employees.department_id =;

FULL JOIN (or FULL OUTER JOIN): A FULL JOIN returns all rows from both tables, even if there is no match in either table.

FROM table1
FULL JOIN table2
ON table1.column = table2.column;


FROM employees
FULL JOIN departments
ON employees.department_id =;

Data from different tables can be combined using JOINs if they share a column or collection of columns. They are a crucial component of SQL and are commonly used in reporting and data analysis.

View in SQL

A virtual table called a SQL view is produced as a result of a SELECT command. It doesn’t save any data on its own; instead, it presents data from one or more tables in a certain fashion.

Syntax for creating a view in SQL:

CREATE VIEW view_name AS
SELECT column1, column2, ...
FROM table_name
WHERE condition;

For instance, you could use the following sentence to create a view called “employee_view” that displays all employees from the “employees” table with the last name “Smith”:

CREATE VIEW employee_view AS
FROM employees
WHERE last_name = 'Smith';

The same SELECT statement that you would use to query a table can also be used to query a view. For instance, you could use the following statement to get all rows from the “employee_view” view:

SELECT * FROM employee_view;

Views can be helpful for a variety of things, including:

  1. Query Simplification: Views can be used to divide down large queries into smaller, more manageable chunks, so simplifying them.
  2. Security: By limiting user access to the data that is displayed in the view, you can utilize views to limit access to certain data.
  3. Data integrity: Since views are built using SELECT statements, which are run each time a view is visited, you can make sure that the data displayed is always current by using views.

Assertion in SQL

An assertion in SQL is a named statement that specifies a requirement that must be true for the database’s contents. The assertion will fail and the database will produce an error if the condition is not satisfied.

The SQL syntax for writing an assertion is as follows:

CREATE ASSERTION assertion_name
CHECK (condition);

For instance, you could use the following sentence to establish an assertion called “salary_assertion” that verifies that no employee in the “employees” table has a salary more than $100,000:

CREATE ASSERTION salary_assertion
CHECK (salary <= 100000);

To drop an assertion, you can use the following statement:

DROP ASSERTION assertion_name;

Assertions can be used to enforce data integrity and guarantee that the database’s data complies with particular requirements. They can be applied to assure data consistency or to enforce business standards. They are not often used in practice though because they can take a lot of effort to make and maintain.

Trigger in SQL

An automatic execution of a defined block of SQL code known as a trigger occurs in reaction to specific events, such as the addition, modification, or deletion of a record in a table. Among other things, triggers are employed to uphold data integrity or to enforce business standards.

The SQL syntax for building a trigger is as follows:

CREATE TRIGGER trigger_name
ON table_name
-- trigger code goes here

For instance, you could use the following sentence to build a trigger called “update_salary_history” that updates the “salary_history” table anytime an employee’s salary is updated in the “employees” table:

CREATE TRIGGER update_salary_history
ON employees
INSERT INTO salary_history (employee_id, salary, update_date)
VALUES (OLD.employee_id, OLD.salary, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP);

To drop a trigger, you can use the following statement:

DROP TRIGGER trigger_name;

Triggers can be helpful for automating specific processes or maintaining data integrity, but they can also be difficult to build and manage, so they should only be used in limited circumstances. In general, it is a good practice to utilize triggers sparingly and to substitute other methods, including foreign keys and stored procedures, whenever possible.

How to change Classic Theme name in PrestaShop 1.7 ?

PrestaShop is an efficient and innovative e-commerce solution with all the features you need to create an online store and grow your business. Customize your store Choose your colors, your logo and a design from among a selection of professional-looking themes. It’s considered as world’s top open source ecommerce solution that’s gaining it’s popularity in recent years. Read more at PrestaShop Official Site.

If you’re familiar with PrestaShop installation or trying to do so, you may be thinking of changing the theme name provided by default installation package. You shall download latest version of PrestaShop from official link here. To begin with default classic theme name edit, I would like to make you clear that there are two ways of editing theme name that come along with package or the theme that you’ve developed.

  1. Renaming theme before installing PrestaShop theme.
  2. Renaming theme after installing PrestaShop theme.

Let’s get started!
Renaming theme before installing PrestaShop theme.

How to change the folder name of your theme after it’s installed.

STEP 1: After downloading .zip file from internet source, unzip it and then find out the theme folder.
STEP 2: Navigate to he path under the theme folder \config\theme.yml and change the name from classic to your name. (e.g. classic to illionso)
STEP 3: Install the new theme and you’re done.

Renaming theme after installing PrestaShop theme.

STEP 1: Navigate to \themes\classic\config\theme.yml file from your local server or live server where you’ve installed PrestaShop. Find the name: classic  and change it to your name. eg name: illionso

STEP 2: Rename the classic folder from your root directory to the name you’ve mentioned in theme.yml file in step 1. e.g. illionso

STEP 3: Go to PhpMyAdmin and select your database. Find ps_shop table over there and then change theme_name value to your name as in step 1 and step 2.

STEP 4: Clear Smarty Cache(by going to Advanced Parameter–>Performance) and you’re done!!!

Share this article if it really helped you. If you’ve any questions, please let me know and I’ll try to respond as soon as possible. Cheers!

5 best websites to learn JavaScript for free

Hi everyone, welcome to my other post where I’ll be highlighting some popular platforms that you can use to learn JavaScript. FYI, JavaScript is one of the most popular programming languages in the world, and for good reason. It’s versatile, powerful, and essential for creating interactive, dynamic websites. If you’re looking to learn JavaScript, there are plenty of resources available online, many of them free. In this blog post, we’ll take a look at the 5 best websites to learn JavaScript for free. Whether you’re a complete beginner or an experienced developer looking to sharpen your skills, these websites have something to offer.

  1. W3 Schools: W3 Schools is a website that offers a wide range of tutorials on web development technologies, including JavaScript. It offers a beginner-friendly introduction to the language, as well as more advanced topics such as DOM manipulation and AJAX.
  2. FreeCodeCamp: FreeCodeCamp is a non-profit organization that offers a comprehensive curriculum of coding lessons, including JavaScript. They have a large community of learners and developers who can help with any queries and also offer certifications for completed modules.
  3. is a website that provides in-depth tutorials on JavaScript, covering both the basics and advanced topics. It also offers interactive coding exercises to help users practice and solidify their understanding of the language.
  4. MDN docs: MDN (Mozilla Developer Network) is a website that offers a wide range of resources for web developers, including detailed documentation on JavaScript. It’s a great resource for looking up specific features of the language and how to use them.
  5. is a website that offers interactive coding exercises and quizzes to help users learn JavaScript. It’s a great resource for those who learn better through hands-on practice.

Things to care about when designing a good database system

There are several things to consider when designing a good database system:

Data modeling: A good database design begins with careful data modeling. This involves identifying the entities (e.g., customers, orders, products) and the relationships between them, and then creating a data model that represents these entities and relationships.

Normalization: Normalization is the process of organizing a database in such a way that it meets certain goals, such as minimizing redundancy and dependency. A properly normalized database is more efficient, flexible, and easier to maintain.

Data integrity: Data integrity refers to the accuracy, completeness, and consistency of the data in a database. It is important to design a database that ensures data integrity through the use of constraints, triggers, and other mechanisms.

Performance: A good database design should take into account the expected workload and optimize the design for good performance. This may involve the use of indexes, partitioning, and other techniques.

Security: A good database design should include measures to protect the data from unauthorized access and tampering. This may involve the use of passwords, access controls, and encryption.

Scalability: A good database design should be able to handle an increasing workload without experiencing performance degradation. This may involve the use of sharding, replication, and other techniques.

Maintainability: A good database design should be easy to maintain over time. This may involve the use of good naming conventions, documentation, and other best practices.

Overall, a good database design should balance the needs of the application with the principles of good database design in order to create a system that is efficient, flexible, and easy to maintain.

Normalization basics that every DBMS student must know.

Normalization is a process that is used to reduce the redundancy and dependency in a database. It is the process of organizing a database in such a way that it meets two main goals:

Minimize redundancy: Redundancy occurs when the same information is stored in multiple places in the database. This can lead to inconsistencies, as different copies of the same data may not be kept in sync. Normalization helps to eliminate redundant data and ensure that each piece of data is stored in only one place.

Minimize dependency: Dependency occurs when one piece of data depends on another piece of data. For example, if an employee’s salary is stored in a separate table from their personal information, the salary depends on the employee’s personal information. Normalization helps to minimize dependency by breaking up large tables into smaller ones and establishing relationships between them using keys.

There are several different types of normalization, each of which has its own set of rules for organizing a database. The most common types of normalization are:

First normal form (1NF): A table is said to be in 1NF if it satisfies the following rules:
Each column must contain a single value (i.e., no repeating groups)
The order of the columns does not matter
There must be a primary key (a unique identifier for each row)

Second normal form (2NF): A table is in 2NF if it is already in 1NF and all of its columns depend on the primary key. In other words, no column should depend on a part of the primary key; it should depend on the whole key.

Third normal form (3NF): A table is said to be in 3NF if it is already in 2NF and all of its columns are independent of each other. In other words, no column should depend on any other column except the primary key.

Boyce-Codd normal form (BCNF): A table is in BCNF if it is already in 3NF and every determinant (a column or set of columns that determines the value of another column) is a candidate key (a unique identifier that could potentially be used as the primary key).

Normalization is an important concept in database design because it helps to ensure that a database is organized in a way that is efficient, consistent, and flexible. It can also help to improve the integrity and security of a database by reducing the risk of data inconsistencies and unauthorized access.

Two Tier vs Three Tier Database Management System Architecture

In the field of Information Technology, DBMS architecture can be defined as integrated combination of security standards for setting as well as programming aspect of databases along with the functioning or operating mechanism of existing structures. Architecture mainly focuses on the overall design and construction of database for large enterprise database systems that so as to manage massive amounts of information for organizations. DBMS Architecture helps in design, development, implementation, and maintenance of a database to great extent. To understand database architecture, we must understand how users of modern day applications interact with information stored in large enterprise environmental settings.

As we’re known to the fact that most users of a database system today are not present at the site of system that’re using them. Databases are connected to it through computer network. Remote machines on which database user work can be referred to as client machines. On the other hand, database system runs on machines called as servers. On the basis of design of system, DBMS architecture can be of either Centralized or Decentralized or Hierarchical type. Whatever it be, DBMS architecture can be seen as either a single-tier or multi-tier. Number of tiers depends upon the specific application requirements or how organizations implement their business logic.

There’re mainly 3 types of DBMS architectures:
1. Single/One Tier (1-Tier)
2. Two Tier Architecture (2-Tier)
3. Three Tier Architecture (3-Tier)

Fig: Single – Tier Architecture
Image Source: Research Gate

Single Tier database architecture is a simplest architecture with all the client, server and database residing on single machine. This very architecture is considered as rarely used architecture and is used by database learners in their local machine itself.
For example: If you install local servers like XAMPP or WAMPP or MAMPP etc. in your PC with MySQL and start learning SQL queries from your web browser, it can be considered as 1 – Tier architecture.

Fig: Two-Tier architecture.

Two Tier database architecture is the one in which whole system is divided into presentation layer and data layer where presentation as well as application layer run on the client devices and database reside on the server computers. It is also known as client-server architecture. In this architecture, the database management system resides on a server computer that is more powerful machines capable of providing service to many clients at once. Application Program Interface(API) standards like ODBC(Open Database Connectivity) and JDBC(Java Database Connectivity) are used for interaction between the client and the server. For this purpose, client first sends connection request to server machine and connection is established after server response. As database and end users are located in different sites, this architecture is considered as secured as well.
For example: Contact Management System created using MS- Access can be considered as an example of Two Tier architecture. Also, Applications like Microsoft Word or PowerPoint running on college’s local servers and students using those applications can be considered as 2-Tier.

Fig: Three – Tier Architecture

Three Tier database architecture is the one in which Presentation layer, Business Logic Layer and Data Layer are separated from each other. The client device acts as merely a front end and does not contain any direct database calls. Instead, the client communicates with a tier where all the business logics are implemented called application server. Clients usually interact with application server through a forms interface. Application server on the other hand communicates with a database system to access data. The business logic of the  application, which says what actions to carry out under what conditions, is embedded in the application server, instead of being distributed across multiple clients. Three – Tier applications are more appropriate for large applications, and for applications that run on the World Wide Web especially.
For example: Travel destination listing website hosted on internet, E-banking service provided by Sanima Bank etc.

I hope you understand the basic behind DBMS architectures and their use cases.
Thanks for reading! – geeksagar

Anatomy of Corona Virus and science behind it

What is Corona Virus?

With common names Coronavirus, COVID-19, Sars-Cov-2 or SARS, etc. Coronavirus is an RNA Virus. Genetic signature inside this virus is made up of Rhino Nucleic Acid(RNA) which can replicate/reproduce itself. Its surface is covered by capsule and elongated structural extensions are seen known as spikes. These spikes form a crown-like structure which is the reason behind its name CoronaVirus. Starting from the year 2019, it created disease and mass penetration and called by the name COVID-19. World Health Organization recently named in accordance with the scientific nomenclature scheme of this category of species as SARS-Cov-2 which means that it’s generation 2 daughter virus of SARS.

How does it enter the human body?

Image Source: Soon-Shiond (MD, MBBCh, MSc), Chairman & CEO of NantWorks

Salival droplets from an infected person with nanoparticles of the SARS-Cov-2 virus go into any surface and hand or any body surface. If it gets a chance to enter the lung, it simply hijacks the protein receptors called ACE2 receptors residing on the surface of human body cells. The main thing is that these receptors are mainly dense in the alveoli cell of lungs from where gas exchange occurs which we call oxygenation. These ACE2 receptors protect lung tissues from injury.

How coronavirus affect our body function?

Coronavirus uses its spikes to communicate with ACE2 receptors and take advantage of the cell itself and use the entire cell as a reproduction factory.

As it replicates, it overtakes protective ACE2 receptors in alveoli. The thickening of the walls and fluid inside alveoli prevents the gas exchange and condition we call is Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Fibrosis takes place after that which results in scars within the lungs.
This condition results in no longer oxygenation inside the lung and our body fights back to take this over which we refer to as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). SARS itself is dangerous as the rest of the body part can’t get enough oxygen to function and leads to multi-organ failure in most of the cases. This happens mainly in alveoli but the fatality ratio is high for a host with Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes, Chronic Respiratory Syndrome, High Blood Pressure, and Cancer, etc in prior in accordance with data from WHO.

For Your Information, Fibrosis is a pathological wound healing in which connective tissue replaces normal parenchymal tissue which leads to remarkable tissue remodelling followed by the formation of permanent scar tissues.


Clinical effects of SARS.

Clinical reportings from around the globe are seeing severe hypertension and low potassium in the blood as some signs from coronavirus affected patients.

How deadly is coronavirus?

The ability of a virus to spread from one host to another is referred to as the spreading factor for that specific virus. The spread factor for coronavirus is reported to be 2.6. For example, if 5 people have coronavirus and they infect 2.6 others then after 2 cycles 18 peoples could get infected. After 3 cycles, it could easily reach 52 people and make 140 people sick in a span of 4 cycles. Majors suggested by the majority of nations fighting against this virus to be in self-isolation and social distancing. This major flattens the exponential growth curve and help medical workers deal with current cases.

Signs/Symptoms of COVID-19

Following is a chart showing signs and symptoms of patients from three major clusters of China; Wuhan, Hubei Province, and China Country.

Image Source: Soon-Shiond (MD, MBBCh, MSc), Chairman & CEO of NantWorks

How soap help in breaking the chain?

The anatomy of viruses is completely different than that of bacterias. This is the reason that antibacterial soaps are not effective in killing the virus. Coronavirus has a fatty protein layer as an envelope that can only be penetrated by detergents like shampoo, dishwasher soaps, soaps, etc. These detergents act as a surfactant and pull out viruses attached in hand or even face surface. The soap has the ability to crack the outer surface of coronavirus, which means the ability to kill them. For this to happen, one should rub each and every corner of their hand for at least 20 seconds.

I hope you got the proper information about what novel coronavirus is and it’s basic structural information in layman’s term. If you liked the information, help spread this message so that everyone gets exact information about the cause behind this novel pandemic. Stay Safe!

Microsoft Promoting Free use of Teams Communication App Amid Coronavirus Breakdown

Microsoft Teams is a hub for teamwork to keep all your team’s chats, meetings, files, and apps together in one place. Instead of meeting in-person, this team communication and file-sharing application is a means for individuals and businesses to facilitate communication regardless of their geographical location. It’s even getting attention more than before the corona virus breakdown.

Microsoft’s executive vice president and president of global sales, marketing and operations Mr. Jean-Philippe Courtois announced six months’ use of Teams for free earlier this month via his Tweet.

Tech giants around the world are announcing free use of such communication applications one after another. Recently, Atlassian let their Jira and bunch of other team management tools free with some limitations to help people communicate to reach others in this global crisis. It’s not the sole purpose as well. As tech enthusiast we can spot some marketing strategy as well. One after another, they’re rolling out their software for general public and small businesses, there’s also an opportunity to such strategic decisions.

After Microsoft announced the Teams for free, it’s usage in China hiked up to result in a server crash recently. Corporate vice president for Microsoft 365 Mr. Jared Spataro recently announced that they’ve seen a 500 percent increase in Teams meetings and conferences there in China since January 31 as well as a 200 percent increase in Teams usage on mobile devices.

You shall download Microsoft Teams following the links below
Teams Download for Desktop
Download Teams for Android
Download Teams for any devices

Leap Year in C, C for beginners

According to the definition, a year that is divisible by 4, 100 and 400 is known as a leap year. Also if a year is exactly divisible by 4 but not by 100 then it is also a leap year. Another important thing you must note is, if a year is exactly divisible by 4 and 100 but not by 400 then it is not a leap year. Based on this general understanding, we’ll build a programming logic to determine if a year entered by the user is leap year or not. We’ll also discuss how to print leap years between some range in this article.

1. Program to check whether a year entered by the user is leap year or not in C.

void main()
    int yr;
    printf("Enter year: ");
    if(yr % 4 == 0)
        if( yr % 100 == 0)
            if ( yr % 400 == 0)
                printf("%d is a Leap Year", yr);
                printf("%d is not a Leap Year", yr);
            printf("%d is a Leap Year", yr );
        printf("%d is not a Leap Year", yr);
 getch(); // for MS DOS based compilers like Turbo C

2. To print leap years in-between range of years provided by the user in C.

#include <stdio.h>
int main()
	int year1, year2, i;
	printf("Enter the Starting year: ");
   	scanf("%d", &year1);
	printf("Enter the Ending Year: ");
   	scanf("%d", &year2);
	printf("Leap Year between %d and %d are as below:\n",year1,year2);	
	for(i=Year1; i <= year2; i++){
		if( (0 == i % 4) && (0 != i % 100) || (0 == i % 400) ){
		    printf("%d\n", i);
    getch(); // for MS-DOS based compilers like Turbo C

Here, in the code portion

for(i=Year1; i <= year2; i++){
         if( (0 == i % 4) && (0 != i % 100) || (0 == i % 400) ){
             printf("%d\n", i);

for each ith year starting from starting year entered by user(i.e. initial value of i) as year1, we need to check if the year i is leap year or not? If yes, print it and if not keep iterating around loop until and unless value of i become ending year.

Thank You!

You may also check my previous articles

Everything about ASCII in C
Setup eCommerce website for your startup | Guidelines
Replacing Characters within string in Python